How It Works

InstaEDU makes it easy to find a great tutor and connect instantly

  • Connect with the perfect tutor, anytime 24/7

    Never get stuck on homework again. InstaEDU has awesome tutors instantly available around the clock.

  • Work together with the best lesson tools

    Our lesson space lets you use video, audio or text. Upload any assignment and work through it together.

  • Try it free—then lock in a super low rate

    Anyone can try InstaEDU for up to 2 hours for free. After that, rates start at just 40¢/minute.

online tutor Rutgers,The State University of New Jersey Chemistry Nursing Biochemistry Pharmacy Anthropology tutoring
255 1

Tina G.

Rutgers,The State University of New Jersey, Class of 2017

Major: Pharmaceutical Chemistry

See all Tina's info

Teaching Experience

I have six and a half years of experience as a teacher atthe undergraduate level. I have conducted classes for undergraduate studentstaking subjects like Advanced Pharmaceutical Chemistry and AdvancedBio-Chemistry.   Last two years, I am tutoring college students online via weblectures and virtual classes in Chemistry, Biology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology. I have expertise in live homework help, assignment help and contentdevelopment.

Extracurricular Interests

1. Completed a six-year course on Vocal Classical Music, ‘Sangeet Visharad Final,’ from Pracheen Kala Kendra, Chandigarh with Distinction. 2. Passed a ‘Madhayama Pratham’ degree in the Indian classical dance ‘Bharatnatyam’ fromthe Akhil Bhartiya Gandharv Mahamandal, Mumbai, in First Class.3.   Inter-school volley-ball team member and won many awards in swimming at the school level.4.Awarded State award for Scouts & Guides from Bhopal region,Madhya Pradesh.

Top Subjects

Biology

I was ranked in the top 0.01% of high school students in India in Biology.

Chemistry

I love to teach classes in chemistry. In class, when I clarify a difficult concept, it is always rewarding to see a twinkle of understanding in my student's eyes. I firmly believe that what I am today is because of my teachers, who took time to patiently explain the basic scientific concepts to me. Also, one can learn almost anything if one understands the basics. My doors are always open to curious minds!

Hindi

Awarded ‘Rastrabhasha Gaurav Puraskar’ for securing 83% marks in All India Senior School Certificate Examination (AISSCE) by the Hindi Academy New Delhi, 1997.

TOEFL

I secured almost perfect scores in TOEFL, July 2014.

Standardized Test Results

SAT

  • Math: 720

GRE

  • GRE (Verbal): 160
  • GRE (Quantitative): 156

TOEFL

  • Aggregate: 112
  • TOEFL (Speaking): 28
  • TOEFL (Writing): 29
  • TOEFL (Reading): 29
  • TOEFL (Listening): 26
Organic Chemistry
Organic Chemistry This is a review for a written lesson.
Nursing This is a review for a written lesson.
Nursing This is a review for a written lesson.
Chemistry "Really broke down into easy steps "
Chemistry
Organic Chemistry This is a review for a written lesson.
Hindi "Tina is excellent"
Chemistry "Yet again... Tina help me in a bind. So if needing real tutoring Tina G is the way to go..."
Organic Chemistry This is a review for a written lesson.
1-10 of 256 Reviews

Subject: Basic Physics

Someone asked:

here is the problem thank you

Tina responded:

From the interferene pattern condition,
dsin (Theta)=m Lambda
d(y/L=m Lambda
Therefore the wave length ,
Lambda = dy/mL

= (0.411 x 10^-3 m ) ( 74.3 x 10^-3 m ) / (10) (4.73)

= 30.54 x 10^-6 / 47.3 = 6.46x 10^-7 = 646 x 10^-9 m = 646 nm

Subject: Organic Chemistry

Someone asked:

Oxidation and Reduction

Tina responded:

Discussion and Conclusion:

The use of IR spectra is a valuable technique in identifying unknown samples. An analysis of an IR spectra is presented here.

The peak at 1712 cm-1 in the IR spectra was significant in the identification of the existence a carbonyl group (RCOR group) in the unknown sample.
It is certain that this O-H stretch signifies the presence of an alcohol because its board shape at 3400 cm^-1. Also it is the overtone from C=O peak. The presence of an alcohol peak suggest that there was some impurities of the starting material present in our final product or water in the sample that may have reacted with the ketone, resulting in an alcohol product.
The peak at 2900 cm-1suggests the presence of C–H bond (sp3 stretch ) .
The IR clarifies the presence of an alcohol functional group along with carbonyl group and sp3 bonding. The final product is either a mixture of cyclohexanone and alcohol, or cyclohexanone and water.

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry (College Intro)

Someone asked:

Written solutions of all 14 questions, thanks.

  • Chemistry Assigment 6.docx This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

PFA

  • Jonathan.docx This attachment has been locked.

Subject: Nursing

Someone asked:

provide the following information: classification,indications, contraindications, adverse(side)effects, interactions, and adult dosage for Ranitidine (Zantac)

Tina responded:

Please find attached

  • Carlene _1.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Nursing

Someone asked:

Pharmacology 1

provide the following information: classification,indications, contraindications, adverse(side)effects, interactions, and adult dosage for methylprednisolone (sol-medrol, medrol)

Tina responded:

Please find attached

  • carlene.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Organic Chemistry

Someone asked:

Organic II

Tina responded:

Please find attached

  • Faiz_72214.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Organic Chemistry

Someone asked:

Why is V a meso compound and not VI?

Tina responded:

Vi is an enantiomer because both the chlorine atoms are in the same plane.

  • A compound that contains exactly one stereocenter is always chiral.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Physiology

Someone asked:

Tina can you also add pulmonary embolism please?

  • disorder review activity - summer 2014.doc This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

PFA

  • Review sheet.doc This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry (College Intro)

Someone asked:

I need help with FLaReS Principle in Chemistry. I think I also need one source.
I attached the documents below.
Here is a link that describe it in depth.
http://digitalbeaker.blogspot.com/2009/02/flares-principles.html
I attached a sample from my teacher

Length is not the most important factor in determining quality. But a high qualitymust be at least a 4-sentence paragraph for each of the four categories (falsifiability, logic, replicability, and sufficiency)

Question:
An advertisement clams that vinegar in a glass cleaning product will remove the spots left on glass by tap water. The spots are largely calcium carbonate deposits. Is this claim reasonable? Use FLaReS to evaluate the claim and support your statement(s).

  • FLaReS sample.doc This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

Please find attached

  • e63a69f07a92f4ff2aa9cf46a0606150_36a38b15632ebf4a0d643d4b754be37c.doc This attachment has been locked.

Subject: Physiology

Someone asked:

Thank you for helping me.

  • disorder review activity - summer 2014 HCR240.doc This attachment has been locked.
  • Death_by_vasopresson_student HCR240.doc This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

Please find attached

  • Case Study.doc This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Basic Physics

Someone asked:

i was told you are the best on this site. all the students in my class fight over you.

  • please good friend.docx This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

1. The electric field at a certain point in the earth's atmosphere = 1.07*10^5 N/C (directed upward)
mass of ice m = 1.10 10^-4 g = 1.1*10-7 Kg
charge on mass q = 1.02*10-11 C
Resultant force acting on the mass = qE - W
ma = qE - mg
acceleration a = (qE/m) - g
= (1.02*10^-11* 1.07*10^5)/ (1.1*10-7) - 9.8
0.122 m/sec^2
2. Electric Filed due to Flat Plate = σ/(2ε0)
= (1.22*10^-10)/(2*8.854*10^-12)
=1.22/ 17.708 = 6.89 N/C
Electric Field due to Charge = kq/r^2
= (9*10^9*1.20*10^-11)/(0.1^2)
= 10.8 N/C
resultant = sqrt(10.8^2 + 6.89^2) = 12.81 N/C
Let it makes an angle Φ with the Horizontal. Therefore,
Φ = arctan(10.8/6.89) =57.456 degree or 302.544 degrees counterclockwise with +ve x-axis.

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

Herere

  • Chem questions.docx This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

Please find attached

  • 0a0c49061b0b06c02dbc235973421827_f8a403171c0a82acbf14064140a27004(1).docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: AP Chemistry

Someone asked:

The questions in the file

Tina responded:

Please find attached

  • Abdullah_Extra credits.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Organic Chemistry

Someone asked:

Lab Report

Tina responded:

Please find attached

  • Faizan_Labdox.docx This attachment has been locked.
  • Graph_analysis.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Physiology

Someone asked:

Tina could you please help me with this homework? I can't find the answers. What I have wrote is what I found on the "Human Pathophysiology for the Health professions book"

  • Skin Mysteries Table.doc This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

Please find attached

Feedback:

Subject: Anatomy

Someone asked:

I do not remember the question. Sorry

Tina responded:

PFA

  • Theresa_DNA.docx This attachment has been locked.

Subject: Chemistry (College Intro)

Someone asked:

Good Afternoon,

This is my last chemisty assignement.

I have attached mine and I have attached Jackie below... I will be doing the following bullet:

•Briefly summarize the team discussion on individual results

This is Jackie's results

Data Table Sheet 2: Store Food Colors

Substance

Store Red

Store Yellow

Store Green

Store Blue

Solvent

Distance (mm)

30mm

38mm

Blue 42mm

Blue 45mm

48mm



-

-

Yellow 38mm

Red 10mm

-

Rf

0.63

0.79

Blue 0.88, Yellow 0.79

Blue 0.94, Red 0.21

-

Data Table Sheet 2: Candy Colors

Substance

M&M Green

M&M Yellow

M&M Blue

M&M Red

Solvent

Distance (mm)

8mm

33mm

47mm

12mm

48mm

Rf

0.17

0.69

0.98

0.25

-

  • Chromatography of Food Dye.doc This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

In the experiment chromatography of food dyes, both the team members-Theresa and Jackie
analyzed four types of samples . They are:

1) FD&C Food Colors
2) Drink mix Kool-Aid
3) Store Food Colors and
4) Candy colors

While analyzing FD&C Food Colors, both the team members interpreted the paper
chromatograms, measured the distances traveled by each dye and the solvent. Theresa calculated the Rf value for each dye. She got 0.91 for Blue 1, 0.17 for Blue 2 , 0.13 for Red 3 , 0.35 for Red 40, 0.57 for yellow 5, 0.43 for yellow 6. She got 0.92 as the Rf value for solvent.

Similarly, Jackie got 0.88 for Blue 1, 0.94 for Blue 2 , 0.21 for Red 3 , 0.63 for Red 40, 0.79 for
yellow 5, 0.79 for yellow 6.

In the next experiment, both the team members analyzed two different flavors of drink mix
Kool-Aid. For the grape flavor, Theresa got 0.74 as the Rf value while she got 0.26 for the
strawberry flavor. Meanwhile, Jackie got ___ and ___as the Rf value for grape and strawberry
flavor respectively.

In the next experiment, Jackie and Theresa analyzed various store food colors . Theresa got 0.32
as the Rf value for color red , 0.52 for yellow, 0.56 for green and 0.88 for blue while Jackie got
__,_ _, __ and __ for red, yellow, green, and blue store color respectively.

In the last experiment, both the classmates tested four M&M candy colors. While Theresa got __,
__, ___ and 0.19 as the Rf value for green, blue, yellow and red color respectively , Jackie got
0.17 as the Rf value for green , 0.69 for yellow , 0.98 for blue and 0.25 for red.

Subject: Chemistry (College Intro)

Someone asked:

Well done, Jackie. You wrote, "Interesting post about the vaccine manufacturing. When I research a vaccine, one of the important things that I look for is the solution that the microorganism was grown in. Sometimes it's bovine or monkey product (such as marrow or blood). I try to choose a manufacturing process that I am most comfortable with before I have them administered to my child. My pediatrician has written an excellent book, The Vaccine Book by Dr. Sears, which has the manufacturing processes clearly described fro every vaccination in his office. I am able to see his recommendations and choose the one I feel best about." The key thing here is that it depends on the vaccine. For example, flu vaccine is cultured in eggs....not sure why, but whatever. If we are growing antibodies, then the number of animal hosts opens up. If we are trying to manufacture proteins, then maybe certain bacteria (genetically engineered) have the best production. This is how we make insulin, by the way. Thoughts?

About sublimination-

No copying or pasting
300 words or less

Tina responded:

Please find attached

  • Insulin.docx This attachment has been locked.

Subject: Physiology

Someone asked:

Musculoskeletal
Fluid and Electrolyte
Respiratory

  • Fluid & Electrolyte and RespiratoryMAV.doc This attachment has been locked.
  • Musculoskeletal MAV.doc This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

PFA

  • Maria_2.doc This attachment has been locked.
  • Maria_1 (2).doc This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry (College Intro)

Someone asked:

•Discuss and compare your responses to the end-of-lab questions.

  • Identification of Metallic Ions Lab ronnie.docx This attachment has been locked.
  • Lewis Structure Model Ronnie.doc This attachment has been locked.
  • Identification of Metallic.doc This attachment has been locked.
  • lewis structure lab.pdf This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

In the lab Lewis structure model, both the team members solved multiple practical

examples of various compounds like ammonia, water, Tetra bromo methane,

sulfur trioxide, Phosphorus tri iodide, Chloromethane, nitrate, carbonate,

ammonium ion, methane, sulfur-dioxide . They wrote the formula for each ,

counted the valence electrons, predicted the electron and molecular geometry

perfectly.

For the next part of the lab, they were given another set of compounds with more

than one central atom. Both Theresa and Ronnie counted the total number of

valence electrons and divide the number in half. Thereafter, they determined the

Lewis structures on each of the central atoms. Compounds analyzed were

methanol, methyl amine, Ethylene and Dimethyl ether. They wrote the formula for

each , showed the structure and predicted molecular geometry for each of them .

Identification of Metallic Ions

In the experiment identification of metallic ions, the first lab question ask them to

identify the part of the periodic table which is responsible for the color

observed. Both Theresa a nd Ronnie identified the metallic portion of the periodic

table responsible for the color observed as the elements by periodic table can be

divided up into metal, nonmetal, and metalloids.

The next lab question is based on more practical application. It tells them to

identify the reason behind the yellow flame color observed when some food is

spilled into the flame while cooking over an open flame. While Ronnie feels

barium or sodium from the food might be the reason, Theresa noticed that sodium

from the food itself or added salt causes the yellow flame. She points out another

reason for the same. She notes that one can get a yellow flame by a lack of oxygen

provided to the fire. A nice blue flame shows that the fire has the oxygen it needs.

Spilling food on the flame extinguishes it's supply of efficient oxygen to burn.

Sodium is a by product when the supply of oxygen is decreased causing it to

burn yellow.

Third question directed them to identify the problems that might be associated

with using flame color for identification purposes. Ronnie feels that it was hard for

him to distinguish the exact color while Theresa agree that there are certain ions

that produce similar color in flame tests which are hard to distinguish. Also, many

times the identification of color changes with set of eyes.

The last question tells them to explain the observed colors produced. Both the team members

agree that when any of the metallic ions is heated the electrons are

excited by the heat causing the color of the flames.

Subject: AP Chemistry

Someone asked:

Hi Tina,
I'll need help on this ......
Exercise:
While rummaging through the cabinets in your winery lab, you find a container of liquid labeled only, "20.00 mL HCI (aq)." Wondering if it will be sufficiently strong to remove the rust from '37 Buick, you are able to reach the end point through titration by adding 14.25 mL of 0.2030 M NaOH. What is the Molarity of the acid?
Note: Show all work, all units, and use the correct number of significant digits.

Tina responded:

At neutralization point ( end-point ) , M1V1 = M2V2 i.e Moles of acid = Moles of base.

M1= Moles of HCl = ?

V1= Volume of HCl = 20.00 ml = 0.0200 L

M2= Moles of NaOH = 0.2030 M

V2= Volume of NaOH = 14.25 ml = 0.1425 L

M1 x 0.0200 = 0.203 x 0.01425

Molarity of HCl = 0.203 x 0.01425 / 0.0200 = 0.1446 M ( Four Sig Fig )

Feedback:

Subject: Biology

Someone asked:

attached

  • Introduction.docx This attachment has been locked.
  • Conclusion.docx This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

I'll post my work in the inbox before deadline. Thanks!

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

i will send clearer pictures if needed

Tina responded:

9.How many grams of HCl to prepare 250ml of 0.158M solution?

Molarity = moles / liters

Rearrange and you get-

Moles = liters x molarity

Moles = 0.250 L x 0.158 M = 0.0395 moles

Molar mass of HCl = 36.461 g/mol

0.0395 moles x 36.461 g/mol = 1.44 g HCl

8. The proof of an alcoholic beverage is twice the volume percent (similar to mass
percent, assume 200 mL total) of ethyl alcohol, C2H5OH in solution. Proof of this
drink is 100 as the volume % = ( 100/200 ) x 100 = 50%.
100 proof = 50% = 100 ml of ethyl alcohol and 100 ml of water

100 ml * 0.789 g/ml =78.9 grams of ethyl alcohol

Molar mass of C2H5OH = 46 g

Moles of C2H5OH = 78.9 g ÷ 46 g/mole = 1.72 moles of C2H5OH

Molality denotes the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent (not
solution).

100 ml of water = 100 g of water = 0. 1 kg of water

Molality = 1.72 ÷ 0.1 = 17.15 m

7. Use the formula – P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
Convert 750 mm Hg and 600 mm Hg to atm
0.9868 x 500 / 300 = 0.7895 x V2 / 200
V2= 0.9868 x 500x 200 / 300 x 0.7895 = 416.64 L = 420 ( two sig fig )

Subject: Physiology

Someone asked:

Human Pathophysiology

Tina responded:

Heart Failure

1. Identify causes of congestive heart failure.

Congestive heart failure occurs when the heart is not able to supply blood normally and its efficiency decreases. It happens due to the combination of various factors together or the result of some other medical condition like myocardial infarction, heart valve defect , diabetes, arrhythmias , coronary artery disease , hypertension , etc.

3. Identify the typical initial symptom or complaint of:

Right sided heart failure: Shortness of breath , Irregular heart beat, Swelling of feet and ankles ( edema ) , increased urine production , noticeable neck veins .

Left sided heart failure : Frothy or blood-tinged mucus cough production , decreased urine production , fatigue, weakness, faintness , Irregular rapid pulse , palpitations, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

4. Explain why each of the following manifestations occurs in congestive heart failure.

a. Ascites: It is the accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity . It occurs when there is right heart failure where the abdomen collects fluid . When the right ventricle starts to fail, fluid begins to collect in the body.

b. Cough: Frothy or blood-tinged mucus cough production is associated with left sided heart failure.

c. Hemoptysis: It is the spitting of blood from the mouth. Occurs in congestive heart failure, especially due to mitral stenosis.

d. Distended neck veins: pronounced neck veins are associated with right sided heart failure.

e. Decreased urine output: increased urine production and other signs of water retention are associated with right sided heart failure

5. Many different therapeutic interventions are used in the treatment of congestive heart failure. Explain the rationale for each treatment measure:

a. Low sodium diet: A low-salt diet helps control hypertension and edema, soothe breathing difficulties in congestive heart failure.

b. Low cholesterol diet: It reduces hyperetension by removing the possibility of Atherosclerosis which is hardening of the arteries due to cholesterol deposition which is the leading cause of heart attacks.

c. Compression stockings: Patients suffering from CHF are advised to keep their legs elevated and wear compression stockings to reduce swelling decreasing pressure on the heart and veins and allows fluid to return to the heart.

d. Continuous oxygen therapy: Oxygen therapy and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are the common treatment options for stable CHF patients with documented sleep disturbances, and hypoxemia which is a medical condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply.

e. Diuretics: decreases sodium and water retention , reduces edema associated with CHF.

f. Potassium supplement: Many patients with heart failure are treated with diuretics to increase urinary output which leads to potassium loss from the body. If too much potassium is lost and not replaced, it can lead to additional complications for the CHF patient. Low potassium level in body produces hypokalemia which can cause the heart to stop beating. Hence Potassium supplement is very important.

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry (College Intro)

Someone asked:

I did not do the Boyle one

  • Boyles Law Ronnie.docx This attachment has been locked.
  • Hess Law Ronnie.docx This attachment has been locked.
  • Boyles Law (1).doc This attachment has been locked.
  • Hess Law.doc This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

Briefly summarize the team discussion on individual results.

In the experiment ‘Hess law’, three reactions were studied. Both Theresa and

Ronnie got slight variations in the change in temperature and the heat of mixture.

While Theresa’s Delta T values are 8.31 , 1.5 and 5.61 deg Celsius respectively ,

Ronnie got 11.785 , 0.168 and 5.839 deg Celsius.

Similarly, Theresa got delta q values as 1303.83 , -235.35 and 880.209 J while

Ronnie got -1006J, 14J, and -498J respectively. Ronnie observed ΔH value for the

formation of ammonium chloride from ammonia and hydrochloric acid as -49.6

kJ/mole. The experimental value is -24.9 kJ/mole while the published

thermodynamic data indicates the value as -52.21 kJ/mole.

Theresa observed ΔH value for the formation of ammonium chloride from

ammonia and hydrochloric acid as 23.4 kJ/mole. The experimental value she got is

20.4 kJ / mole while the published thermodynamic data indicates the value as (–

176 kJ/mole ). Ronnie got – 49% error from the various methods used while

Theresa got 87.56 average percentage error. Both the team members found

significant result contamination and data inaccuracies which caused such high

errors in the experimental errors. Lastly, they discussed possible practical uses of

heat of enthalpy .

Subject: Physical Chemistry

Someone asked:

I need help with physical chemistry calculations - thanks

Tina responded:

Inbox me the questions. Thanks!

Subject: Organic Chemistry

Someone asked:

Discuss the relative stabilities of methylcyclohexane?

Tina responded:

I'll inbox you the answer by tonight. Thanks!

Feedback:

Subject: Biochemistry

Someone asked:

1. What types of modifications can occur after a polypeptide chain has been completed by a ribosome? (SELECT ALL THAT APPLY)
a) glycosylation
b) removal of methionine
c) hydrolysis
d) addition of amino acids
e) phosphorylation

2. Gly is the second amino acid in a polypeptide that is being synthesized. What is the first amino acid? (give the three-letter abbreviation)

Tina responded:

Gly is the second amino acid in a polypeptide that is being synthesized. What is the first amino acid - Methionine, Met

Feedback:

Subject: Organic Chemistry

Someone asked:

Nomenclature

Tina responded:

There is only one choice for the longest chain, then the branched branch is

numbered ( starting at the carbon attached to the main chain as number 1 ) and the

position of the branches on the branch indicated using this numbering scheme. The

complex substituent is then placed in parentheses to remove any confusion over

numbering.

The compound is named: 3- ethyl 5- (1- ethyl, 2 –methyl propyl ) nonane

Parent name: nonane

Substituents: ethyl at position 3 attached to the main chain and

1- ethyl, 2 –methyl propyl group at position 5 of the main chain

Note that putting the branched branch in parentheses clearly designates the '2' as

referring to the position of the methyl group on the propyl branch ( numbered in

the above diagram ) . Similarly, '1' is referring to the position of the ethyl group on

the propyl branch. Note that the carbon of the propyl branch that is attached to the

main chain is designated '5'.

Feedback:

Subject: Organic Chemistry

Someone asked:

PLEASE help in that
i need Pka no.s and explanation would be good 2

Tina responded:

See Inbox

Subject: Anatomy

Someone asked:

Where does digestion actually begin?  Think before  you say the mouth!

Tina responded:

See Inbox. Thanks!

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

•Discuss and compare your responses to the end-of-lab questions
300 words or less

  • Properties of Gases Ronnie.docx This attachment has been locked.
  • Qualitative Cation Tests Ronnie.docx This attachment has been locked.
  • properties of gases theresa.doc This attachment has been locked.
  • Qualitative Cation Tests theresa.doc This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

A. Write net ionic equations for all reactions that produce a precipitate.

Answer)
Al^+3(aq) + 3OH^-1(aq) --> Al(OH)^3(s)
Ca^2 +(aq) + 2OH^-(aq) --> Ca(OH)2(s)
Cu^2 +(aq) + 2OH^-(aq) --> Cu(OH)2(s)
Ag^+(aq) + Cl^-(aq) --> AgCl(s)
Fe^3+(aq) + 2OH^-(aq) --> Fe(OH)3(s)
Pb^2+(aq) + 2Cl^-(aq) --> PbCl2(s)
Zn^2+(aq) + 2OH^-(aq) --> Zn(OH)2(s)

B) Identify the cations that precipitate with hydrochloric acid and dissolve in the presence of ammonia.

Answer) This would be Ag^+.

C) . Identify the cations that precipitate with hydrochloric acid and do not redissolve in the

presence of ammonia.

Answer) Pb^2+

D. Identify the cations that precipitate upon addition of two or three drops of sodium hydroxide

but redissolve upon addition of excess sodium hydroxide.

Answer) Al(NO3)3 and Zn(NO3)2

E. Identify the cations that precipitate upon addition of two or three drops of sodium hydroxide

and are not affected by additional sodium hydroxide.

Answer) Ca(NO3)2 and Cu(NO3)3

F. Identify the cations that precipitate upon addition of two or three drops of aqueous ammonia

but redissolve upon addition of excess aqueous ammonia.

Answer) Cu^2+ is the cation here.

G. Identify the cations that precipitate upon addition of two or three drops of aqueous ammonia

and are not affected by additional aqueous ammonia.

Answer) Fe^3+, Zn^2+, Pb^2+, Ca^2+, Al^3+

H. What simple test would distinguish Ag+ and Cu2+ ?

Answer)

Simply add HCl. Silver will precipitate and copper will not.

Subject: Physiology

Someone asked:

Hi I'm putting together a study guide for my final exam, I was wondering if you could help me answer these questions? If you could include any source you use that would be awesome so that I can look it up later. Thank you so much!

  • Study Guide Physio.doc This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

2. Why do the dairy producers add vitamin D to milk?

All milk and milk products in the U.S. are fortified with vitamin D—each providing

between 10-25% of the Daily Value. Milk is the No. 1 dietary source of vitamin D,

calcium and phosphorus, for Americans 2 years and older. Thus, increasing consumption

of vitamin D-fortified dairy foods is a simple strategy to help Americans meet

recommended intakes of vitamin D and other important bone-building nutrients.

Vitamin D fortification of food remains an important public health strategy for achieving

recommended intakes . Apart from milk, only a few foods such as oily fish ( e.g., salmon,

mackerel, herring ) and cod liver oil are naturally rich in vitamin D.

Most circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D originates from exposure to sunlight;

however, seasonal changes, living at high latitudes, dark skin pigmentation, aging,

and other factors can impair this process, necessitating periodic reliance on dietary

sources to supply the needed precursor to 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Because so

many environmental, cultural, and physiologic factors can impair sunlight-induced

synthesis of vitamin D, people are reliant on dietary sources to supply the essential

precursor to 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Two forms of vitamin D are used in fortified foods

and dietary supplements: vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). –

While both forms raise 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, vitamin D3 may be more than three

times as effective at maintaining those levels for a longer period of time.

Reference: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/80/6/1710S.full

3. Many people with diabetes refer to their condition as a problem with “sugar”.

Explain how this belief might have started, why is it accurate, and inaccurate.

Diabetes is another name of sugar diabetes which is a condition where a person has high

blood sugar / glucose level in the body. You develop diabetes when your body doesn’t

produce enough insulin. Without insulin your body cannot get the energy it needs from

your food. Normally, a gland called the pancreas makes insulin which carries the sugar in

the blood into the cells. In diabetes, the pancreas fails to supply enough insulin, or the

insulin doesn't work properly.

There are two major types of diabetes: Type I, or diabetes insipidus, and Type II, diabetes

mellitus. Both have similar symptoms but different causes.

Type I diabetes is diagnosed in childhood where the body's own immune system attacks

and kills the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin, leaving a person's body without

insulin, and unable to regulate its blood sugar levels.

In Type II diabetes , the body's cells become resistant to insulin.

Sugar diabetes is an older name for "diabetes mellitus" which is the broad term

under which type 1 and type 2 diabetes are categorized under. The term was used to

identify disease where sugar levels were abnormally high.

"Diabetes" is a Greek word that means "one that straddles" or goes to the bathroom

a lot. The Latin term "mellitus" means "honey" or honey taste. So translated, our

word for diabetes becomes "one who pees a lot of honey-tasting urine."

Reference: http://www.kznhealth.gov.za/diabetes1.htm

Feedback:

Subject: AP Chemistry

Someone asked:

Significant numbers operational in each of the four excercises.

  • 134VID253_Problem Set B.doc This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

A Please accept my answer,rate it and ask for any further clarification if needed. Thanks for using InstaEdu !

  • Luis.doc This attachment has been locked.

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

Chemistry review sheet

  • 2014_ChemFinX_review.docx This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

First five questions attached herewith. I'm sending you the rest via chat. Thanks!

  • Alexander.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Physics

Someone asked:

Its Mainly doing a coursework. (":
I need, more information in the conclusion and evaluation
and I started it, also so just like more tons of more information in the conclusion and evaluation and if you can check all the work, and make a fiew changes if you see something wrong

  • PHYSICS MAIN!!.docx This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:


Please accept my answer,rate it and ask for any further clarification if needed. Thanks for using InstaEdu!

  • 26d1f0835953d8076811a39ea5d8ae48_a1e2bae7fbb4e5190a98d63558fd2335.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Anatomy

Someone asked:

Can you live without a spleen? If you can what happens on a physiological level to accomplish what the spleen used to do? Are there long term repercussions?

What is opsonization? what are the major functions of antibodies?

What is the relationship of the thymus to t-cells? Is there any change in t-cells as we age?

Questions are NOT together--- 300 words or less no copying and pasting

Tina responded:

One can live without a spleen. However, the spleen does play an important role in the body's
ability to fight off bacteria. Living without a spleen makes one prone to develop dangerous
infections like pneumonia, meningitis, and influenza. Infections usually develop faster and cause
death in almost 50% of cases. Although frequent vaccinations might solve the purpose.
The spleen filters blood , removes damaged or diseased cells , manufactures
lymphocytes and stores extra RBC. The liver acts as the blood filtering function once the spleen
is gone. Lymph nodes and liver take over spleen's functions. According to the Department of
Surgical Education at the Orlando Regional Medical Center, people without spleen need booster
vaccinations and a regimen of antibiotics as a preventative measure against infection. Long term
repercussions include susceptibility to infection and vaccinations and prophylactic antibiotics for
their entire lives.

References:

Shelton J, Holzman MD. The spleen. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox
KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap
57.

Brandow AM, Camitta BC. Hyposplenism, splenic trauma, and splenectomy. In: Kliegman RM,
Stanton BF, St. Geme JW III, et al., eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia,
PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 481.

Subject: Chemistry (College Intro)

Someone asked:

1. What is a combustion reaction? How is it also an oxidation–reduction reaction? Provide two to three examples of combustion reactions.

2. If we take the series of simple hydrocarbons - methane, ethane, propane, butane, and pentane - you might notice that we are adding a methylene group (-CH2) as we move up the series. With each additional group we increase the boiling point. At one end we have methane, ethane, and propane that exist as gases at room temperature. Butane is sort of a hybrid and pentane is a liquid at room temperature. The higher we go the more likely the hydrocarbon will be a solid at room temperature. Perhaps you might share the boiling points of the first 10 simple hydrocarbons.

3. What gases can be a threat when they are part of the air inside your home? How would you determine if they are present? At what level do they present a threat?

4. So let's take a segue into gas detection. Many gases that are deadly to humans (and other organisms) are undetectable unless one uses some kind of technology. Of those that are most "popular" to us, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are chief among the hazardous gases. Older gas detectors used a visual mechanism (color-change) to warn people of dangerous gas levels. While that may work great if you are awake and walking around, assuming you regularly monitor your badge. Most modern detectors are based on electrochemical mechanisms and are tied directly into the home/business alarm systems. They even have systems that can alert the sensory-impaired population (see Wiki link below). Thoughts?

No copying or pasting! Word limit 600 words. DO not combine!!!

Tina responded:

See Inbox. Thanks!

Feedback:

Subject: Organic Chemistry

Someone asked:

please check the Review problem provide detail explanation. Indicate intermediate state if it has one & final product clearly under each structure.

Tina responded:

See inbox. Thanks!

Subject: Anatomy

Someone asked:

Describe a scenario where an infection would start at the innate level but eventually require an adaptive defense.

300 words or less

NO COPYING OR PASTING

Tina responded:

The immune system in our body has two major parts:

The innate or the general defense and the adaptive or the specialized defense.

Both work closely together and use cellular and humoral defense strategies.

The innate system is the first line of defense. It consists of several elements: the skin which form

external barriers , various defense cells (leukocytes) and substances in the blood and in body

fluids.

If the antigen is successfully tackled by the innate immune system, no disease will occur. The

innate immune system is the dominant system of host defense in most organisms.

However, if the innate immune system is unsuccessful in destroying the pathogen, the specific

adaptive immune response starts after about 4 to 7 days Parts of the adaptive defense include: T

lymphocytes , B lymphocytes , antibodies and cytokines in the blood and tissue . This

means that the adaptive defense takes longer, but it targets the pathogen more accurately.

Once the adaptive system starts, the body will recover from the attack. The adaptive system will

also retain memory of the aggressor and acts specifically against certain antigens so that a

second exposure to the same antigen will trigger a greater and faster response, usually arresting

its further development. If neither the innate or adaptive immune systems are effective, death

might occur.

References:

Thews G, Mutschler E, Vaupel P. Anatomie, Physiologie, Pathophysiologie des Menschen. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft. 1999.

Schäffler A, Schmidt S. Biologie, Anatomie, Physiologie. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag. 1998.

Informed Health Online [Internet]. Cologne, Germany: Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG); 2006-. How do the innate and adaptive immune systems work together? 2010 Dec 7 [Updated 2012 Apr 4]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92541/

Please accept my answer,rate it and ask for any further clarification if needed. Thanks for using InstaEdu!

Feedback:

Subject: Basic Physics

Someone asked:

Checking answers ; help with question

Tina responded:

Hi Damian ! Please send me your questions over the chat. Thanks!

Subject: Organic Chemistry

Someone asked:

could you solve these with hw problem & i am also working on a review sheet. i would like you to check my work for those later. thank you

Tina responded:

PFA

  • Henry.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Biology (College Advanced)

Someone asked:

2. What are the changes (↓ or ↑ or not applicable with a brief explanation) in the following:
i. Plasma glucose
ii. Liver glycogenesis
iii. Liver gluconeogenesis
iv. GLUT 4 in the liver plasma membrane
v. GLUT 9 in the liver plasma membrane
vi. Muscle glycogenesis
vii. Muscle gluconeogenesis
viii. GLUT 4 in the muscle plasma membrane
In response to an injection of insulin (A) or glucagon (B) or cortisol (C)

Tina responded:

See Inbox. Thanks!

Subject: Anatomy

Someone asked:

neuron pathways/reflexes

  • anatomy assign.docx This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

The thought, sight, and/or smell of food stimulate the solitary nuclei in the medulla to increase

parasympathetic innervation to the salivary gland. In this case, you smell the cookies. This input

gets sent to your cerebral cortex. From there, it is sent to the salivary center in medulla. Then, it

proceeds to the salivary glands through your autonomic nerves. Finally, you start salivating.

There is dual autonomic innervation of salivary glands. During eating there are massive increases

in secretion over very short periods of time and these are result of number of sensory receptors

like gustatory receptors, mechanoreceptors, olfactory and nociceptors. The first step in stimulus-

secretion coupling is release of a neurotransmitter.

Afferent pathways: taste; facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves to solitary nucleus in

the medulla. There is input from higher centres in response to smell etc.

Efferent pathways:

Parasympathetic; sublingual and submandibular from facial nerve via submandibular ganglion.

Parotid from glossopharyngeal via otic ganglion. Sympathetic post ganglionic from cervical

ganglion of sympathetic chain.

The primary stimulus for salivation is taste and afferent input is carried to the solitary nucleus in

the medulla via the facial (VII) and glossopharyneal (IX) nerves. Input from other senses, such

as smell and sight are also integrated in the solitary nucleus.

Parasympathetic efferent pathways for the sublingual and submandibular glands are from the

facial nerve via the submandibular ganglion and for the parotid gland from the glossopharangeal

nerve via the otic ganglion. These pathways regulate fluid secretion by releasing acetylcholine

(ACh) at the surface of the salivary gland acinar cells.

Macromolecule secretion is regulated by nor-adrenaline release from sympathetic nerves.

Sympathethic post ganglionic pathways are from the cervical ganglion of the sympathetic chain.

The division between parasympathetic and sympathetic control of the secretory process is not

clearly marked because parasympathetic nerves release peptides and noradrenalin binds to

Ca2+ mobilising α adrenergic receptors.

Summary:

Parasympathetic - secretion of water and ions , Sympathetic - protein secretion

Both act simultaneously and synergistically mediated by G-protein coupled receptors

Parasympathetic - M3 muscarinic receptors

Minor players - neuropeptide; nucleotide receptors, VIP, Substance P, nucleotides, etc.

Sympathetic - b2 adrenergic receptors

Minor players - a adrenergic receptors

Two different signal transduction pathways work together.

Muscarinic messages : The Phospholipase C - IP3 pathway sends the message and Intracellular

(and extracellular) Ca2+ flux is a major effector.

Adrenergic messages : The adenylate cyclase - cAMP pathway sends the message and Effectors

are activated by a phophorylation cascade

Water secretion is driven by osmotic changes mediated by ionic fluxes from basolateral surfaces

to the apex (lumen) which involves ion pumps and channels.

Reference: Turner RJ, Sugiya H (2002). Understanding salivary fluid and protein secretion. Oral Diseases 8:3-11

  • Anya.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Anatomy

Someone asked:

What is involved Mitral Valve Prolapse and why does it generally not require surgery to correct?

NO COPYING OR PASTING - 300 WORDS OR LESS WITH REFERENCES PLEASE

Tina responded:

Mitral valve prolapse

It is a medical condition in which the heart's mitral valve doesn't work well.
The flaps normally help seal or open the valve. But in this condition , the flaps of the valve
are flaccid and don't close tightly.
In people who have MVP, the mitral valve may be abnormal in the following ways:
• The valve flaps may be too large and thick.
• The valve flaps may be faccid.
* The opening of the valve may stretch.
The mitral valve controls blood flow between the left auricle and the left ventricle of the heart.
The mitral valve allows blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle, but not back the
other way.
In Mitral valve prolapse, when the left ventricle contracts, one or both flaps of the mitral valve
bulge back (prolapse) into the left auricle. This can prevent the valve from forming a tight seal.
As a result, blood may leak from the ventricle back into the atrium. The backflow of blood is
called regurgitation. But Mitral valve prolapse doesn't always cause backflow. Most people who
have the condition don't have backflow and never have any related symptoms or problems. Their
mitral valves still can form a tight seal. When backflow does occur, it can cause shortness of
breath and arrhythmias or chest pain.
Mitral valve prolapse is diagnosed by a test called echocardiography. Researchers believe that
less than 3 percent of the population actually has MVP. Most people who have MVP have no
symptoms or medical problems and don't need treatment. They're able to lead normal, active
lives; they may not even know they have the condition.
A small number of people who have Mitral valve prolapse may need medicine to relieve their
symptoms. Very few people who have Mitral valve prolapse need heart valve surgery to repair
their mitral valves.

The exact cause of mitral valve prolapse is unknown. Most people who have the condition are
born with it and it tends to run in families. So you can't prevent mitral valve prolapse.

References :
Management of Valvular Heart Disease, European Society of Cardiology (2012)
Guy TS, Hill AC; Mitral valve prolapse. Annu Rev Med. 2012;63:277-92.

Hayek E, Gring CN, Griffin BP; Mitral valve prolapse. Lancet. 2005 Feb 5-11;365(9458):507-18.
Mitral Valve Prolapse, Familial; Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man

Shah PM; Current concepts in mitral valve prolapse--diagnosis and management. J Cardiol. 2010 Sep;56(2):125-33. Epub 2010 Aug 10.

Salem DN, O'Gara PT, Madias C, et al; Valvular and structural heart disease: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest. 2008 Jun;133(6 Suppl):593S-629S.

2008 Focused Update Incorporated Into the ACC/AHA 2006 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines

Percutaneous mitral valve leaflet repair for mitral regurgitation, NICE Interventional Procedure Guideline (August 2009)

Perloff JK, Child JS. Mitral valve prolapse. Evolution and refinement of diagnostic techniques. Circulation. Sep 1989;80(3):710-1.

Perloff JK, Child JS, Edwards JE. New guidelines for the clinical diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse. Am J Cardiol. May 1 1986;57(13):1124-9.

Freed LA, Levy D, Levine RA, et al. Prevalence and clinical outcome of mitral-valve prolapse. N Engl J Med. Jul 1 1999;341(1):1-7.

Levine RA, Triulzi MO, Harrigan P, Weyman AE. The relationship of mitral annular shape to the diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse. Circulation. Apr 1987;75(4):756-67.

Alpert MA, Mukerji V, Sabeti M, et al. Mitral valve prolapse, panic disorder, and chest pain. Med Clin North Am. Sep 1991;75(5):1119-33.

Avierinos JF, Gersh BJ, Melton LJ 3rd, Bailey KR, Shub C, Nishimura RA, et al. Natural history of asymptomatic mitral valve prolapse in the community. Circulation. Sep 10 2002;106(11):1355-61.

Barnett HJ, Boughner DR, Taylor DW, Cooper PE, Kostuk WJ, Nichol PM. Further evidence relating mitral-valve prolapse to cerebral ischemic events. N Engl J Med. Jan 17
1980;302(3):139-44.

Bryhn M, Persson S. The prevalence of mitral valve prolapse in healthy men and women in Sweden. An echocardiographic study. Acta Med Scand. 1984;215(2):157-60.

Ciancamerla F, Paglia I, Catuzzo B, Morello M, Mangiardi L. Sudden death in mitral valve prolapse and severe mitral regurgitation. Is chordal rupture an indication to early surgery?. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). Apr 2003;44(2):283-6.

Clemens JD, Horwitz RI, Jaffe CC, Feinstein AR, Stanton BF. A controlled evaluation of the risk of bacterial endocarditis in persons with mitral-valve prolapse. N Engl J Med. Sep 23 1982;307(13):776-81.

Cohn LH, Couper GS, Aranki SF, Rizzo RJ, Kinchla NM, Collins JJ Jr. Long-term results of mitral valve reconstruction for regurgitation of the myxomatous mitral valve. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. Jan 1994;107(1):143-50; discussion 150-1.

Dajani AS, Taubert KA, Wilson W, et al. Prevention of bacterial endocarditis. Recommendations by the American Heart Association. Circulation. Jul 1 1997;96(1):358-66.

Devereux RB. Recent developments in the diagnosis and management of mitral valve prolapse. Curr Opin Cardiol. Mar 1995;10(2):107-16.

Devereux RB, Hawkins I, Kramer-Fox R, Lutas EM, Hammond IW, Spitzer MC. Complications of mitral valve prolapse. Disproportionate occurrence in men and older patients. Am J Med. Nov 1986;81(5):751-8.

  • Theresa.docx This attachment has been locked.

Subject: Microbiology

Someone asked:

the PowerPoint files is for 6 and the PDF file for 3 4a b

  • Bacteriophage receptors mecahnisms of phage adsorption and penetration.pdf This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

b. Discuss the major factors involved in the global increase of TB, MDR-TB and XDR-TB.

There are many factors which may have contributed to the resurgence of this disease, particularly in developed countries. These include :

1.Increased poverty causing overcrowded housing and homelessness, which increases the transmission of this disease,

2.Poor nutrition (particularly in people with drug or alcohol addictions), which lowers resistance to infection.

3.People infected with HIV are much more likely to develop TB than those without HIV and TB is a leading cause of death among the HIV-positive population.

4. Immune function decreases with age so that elderly people are more at risk of contracting TB.

5. Increased air travel and the movement of people from areas where TB is common are also reasons for an increase in the disease in developed countries

c. Define and detail the three major processes of genetic transfer between microorganisms in the environment. Explain how this generation of diversity can affect endemic and emerging diseases.

The generation of diversity can affect endemic and emerging diseases by developing antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance initially arises as mutations to existing genes; however, many acquire these genes rather than experience the mutation themselves. Resistance genes are transferred to other members of the same species and across species by a variety of genetic exchange mechanisms.

1. Conjugation :Many micro-organisms can transfer extra-chromosomal genetic material called
plasmids via the process of conjugation. Micro-organisms endowed with the plasmids have numerous pili along their surfaces; one of these extends to a plasmid-lacking micro-organisms as a conjugation tube. The plasmid then replicates, and one copy travels through the conjugation tube into the recipient. One large class of plasmids is called resistance plasmids because they carry genes that confer antibiotic resistance. Many resistance plasmids carry genes for resistance to multiple antibiotics; thus, one conjugation event can simultaneously transfer resistance to several antibiotics.

2. Transformation:
Micro-organisms are capable of taking up free-floating bits of DNA from their environments in a
process known as transformation. If they take up a DNA fragment containing an antibiotic
resistance gene, they may become resistant to that antibiotic.

3. Transduction :
Micro-organisms are subjected to viral infection. When a micro-organism is infected, the virus
takes over the cell's metabolism, directing synthesis of its genetic material and production of the
components of the viral particle. Simultaneously, the host DNA is degraded. In the last stage of
virus production, its genetic material is encapsulated in a protein coat. Occasionally, a piece of the host DNA may be packaged in a viral particle. The resulting "transducing particle," like a normal viral particle, has the ability to attach to a recipient and transfer its genetic material into the cell providing resistance to an antibiotic.
Finally, many transposons carry antibiotic resistance genes. Transposons are sequences of DNA that are capable of inserting themselves randomly into genomes. Because they do not appear to rely on specific genetic sequences of the target insertion site, they can readily move across species.
Although mutations that result in antibiotic resistance are rare events, they need occur only once. In an environment of heavy antibiotic use, the forces of natural selection will favor the propagation of resistant variants of a pathogen.

Feedback:

Subject: Anthropology

Someone asked:

answering

1) Which domesticated animal has been most important to our species? Why?

2) How do you think wolves became domesticated? Describe the process you believe would have made wolves become dogs.

Tina responded:

Cattle has been most important to our species and are among the most useful of all domestic animals. They were domesticated in Asia first and since modern civilization began, human beings have been milking cows and used ox to plow their fields. They have wild relatives in many parts of the world. They are also used for their meat, leather, transportation and religion in Asia.

Subject: Chemistry (College Intro)

Someone asked:

(1) you must prepare an aqueous, isotonic solution ( size: 150 ml) with
the following composition:
 
atropine sulphate 1.0%
thiomersal 0.002%
boric acid qs *
water for injections qs *
  * gs means , as much as you use
 
 
a) How much atropine sulphate (g) is used for 150 ml of solution?
b) How much boric acid added to achieve an isotonic solution?
Obs.: Thimerosal may be neglected in the calculation.
c) How much water should the drug substance (volume 150 ml eye drops as calculated in task
1) was dissolved to the solution isotonic? Which volume of an isotonic boric acid solution
may be added to produce the drops?

Tina responded:

a) How much atropine sulphate (g) is used for 150 ml of solution?

Answer)
150 ml x 1 g / 100 ml = 1.5 g
E atropine sulfate= 0.13
1.5 x 0.13 = 0.195 g

b) How much boric acid added to achieve an isotonic solution?

Answer)
Several methods are used to adjust isotonicity of pharmaceutical solutions. One of the most widely used method is the sodium chloride equivalent method. The NaCl equivalent (E) is the amount of NaCl which has the same osmotic effect (based on number of particles) as 1 gm of the drug.
Must work out mass of NaCl represented by all ingredients

Now how much NaCl in 150ml of isotonic solution (0.9% NaCl) = 1.35 g

Need 1.35g- 0.195 g = 1.155 g of NaCl required to make solution isotonic but using boric acid so must divide by NaCl eq of boric acid

1.155/ 0.52 = 2.22 g of boric acid to make solution isotonic

c) How much water should the drug substance ( volume 150 ml eye drops as calculated in task 1) was dissolved to the solution isotonic? Which volume of an isotonic boric acid solution may be added to produce the drops?
Water added= upto 150 ml
I hope this makes sense. Please accept my answer,rate it and ask for any further clarification if needed. Thanks for using InstaEdu !

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

I need help with this assignment

  • Assignment 1 Redox and Chemical Equilibria.docx This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

I started working on this. Will send you the solution within the next 10 hours or before. Thanks!

Subject: Physiology

Someone asked:

the question is about physical problem

  • Drug and Alcohol services SA.docx This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

See inbox. Thanks!

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

Chemistry lab assistance

Tina responded:

See inbox. Thanks!

Feedback:

Subject: Physiology

Someone asked:

Would someone be able to answer these questions in detail so that I could understand them?

  • Physiology Problem Set 5.doc This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

The kidneys maintain our body's water balance by controlling the water concentration of
blood plasma . The total amount of water in that person's body remains constant. As long
as a water balance exists, the osmotic concentrations of body fluids will remain as they
should. Once there is a change in water balance, there will be a discrepancy in the
osmotic concentration of solutions, and osmotic pressure will exist in certain regions.
After a sudden influx of water , one will feel the urge to urinate because the water
makes the blood too dilute and the kidneys subsequently remove the excess water from
the blood. The excess water first moves into the glomerular capsule and passes through
the nephron, where some is reabsorbed into the blood. From the nephron the fluid moves
to the collecting duct, a ureter, and then into the urinary bladder. Throughout this process,
ADH secretion has stopped because the blood is fully hydrated, which causes the walls of
the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to be less permeable to water. This
allows for more water to be retained in the urine.
Hyponatremia is a condition in which the body's stores of sodium are too low, and this
condition results from drinking extreme amounts of water. Extreme amount of water
intake leads to water intoxication which effects brain functions by abnormal balance of
electrolytes in the body by over-hydration.
Similarly without enough water in the body makes it dehydrated. Dehydration occurs
when the body loses too much fluid without replenishment. It causes muscle
cramps and nausea. In severe dehydration, there is no longer enough fluid in the
body to get blood to the organs, and one might go into life-threatening shock.

Feedback:

Subject: Biochemistry

Someone asked:

How many ATP equivalents are consumed in the production of urea in the urea cycle?

Strenuous muscle exertion rapidly depletes ATP levels. How long will 8 mM ATP last if 1 gram of muscle consumes 300 μmol of ATP per minute?
Use the density of water to help aid in your calculations and assume muscle is 70% water.

Tina responded:

Answer: One gram of muscle contains approximately 0.7 g of H2O, or 0.7 mL. If the [ATP] = 8 mM, 0.7 mL contains. Complete answer attached herewith. Please accept my answer,rate it and ask for any further clarification if needed. Thanks for using InstaEdu!

  • David.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Medicine

Someone asked:

M edicine

Tina responded:

Hi Anastasia! How can I help you?

Subject: Biology (College Intro)

Someone asked:

Transplanting embryonic eye tissue under the skin on the back of a developing tadpole (frog) will cause an eye to grow on the back of the tadpole. This is an example of:
A) potentiation
B) pattern formation
C) induction
D) positional information
E) convolution
I think the answer is either C or D. I am having trouble explain what is the correct answer and why the others are incorrect

Tina responded:

This will be induction - substances from one embryonic cell influencing the development of other cells. Induction is the capacity of some cells to cause other cells to develop in a certain way. Inductive signals play a major role in pattern formation – the development of an animal’s spatial organization.The molecular cues that control pattern formation is called positional information:
For ex -
Tell a cell where it is with respect to the animal’s body axes.
Determine how the cell and its descendents respond to future molecular signals.

potentiation and convolution does not make sense.

Please accept my answer,rate it and ask for any further clarification if needed. Thanks for using InstaEdu !

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

Hi Tina, have few questions I send u pic of questions

Tina responded:

Preparation of acetophenone by Friedal Craft's acylation

i ) Acetyl chloride reacts with benzene in presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride to form acetophenone.

(ii) By distillation of a mixture of calcium benzoate and calcium acetate.

(iii) By methylation of benzaldehyde with diazomethane.

C6H5CHO + CH2N2 ————> C6H5COCH3 + N2

(iv) By treating benzoyl chloride with dimethyl cadmium.

2C6H5COCl + (CH3)2Cd ————> 2C6H5COCH3 + CdCl2

Feedback:

Subject: Biology

Someone asked:

How to make a chart to illustrate the overall classification of living organisms & how to make a flow chart to outline the process of Natural Selection.

Tina responded:

See inbox .Thanks

Feedback:

Subject: Physics

Someone asked:

Physics help

Tina responded:

Hi Patel! How can I help you?

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

r the diprotic weak acid H2A, Ka1 = 2.9 × 10-6 and Ka2 = 6.1 × 10-9. What is the pH of a 0.0500 M solution of H2A? What are the equilibrium concentrations of H2A and A2– in this solution?

pH=
H2A=
A^2-=

Tina responded:

Determining the equilibrium concentrations of the species of a diprotic acid in aqueous solution is more involved than for a mono protic acid. We follow the same procedure as that used for a mono protic acid for each stage. Note that the conjugate base from the first stage of ionization becomes the acid for the second stage ionization.

The first stage of ionization:

Step 1: The major species in solution at this stage are the non-ionized acid, H+ ions, and the conjugate base , HA-.

Step 2: Letting x be the equilibrium concentrations of H+ and HA- ions in mol/L, we summarize:

H2A ( aq ) ---> HA- ( aq ) + H+ ( aq )
Initial 0.05 0 0
Change -x +x +x
Equilibrium 0.05-x +x +x

Ka = [H+ ] [ HA- ] / [H2A]
2.9 × 10-6 = x^2 / 0.05-x
Applying the approximation, we obtain
2.9 × 10-6 = x^2 / 0.05
X= 0.000381

pH = - log (H^+) = - log (0.000381 ) = 3.42

The concentration of [H2A] = 0.05- x = 0.05- 0.000381 = 0.0496 M

The second stage of ionization:
HA- ( aq ) -----> A2- ( aq ) + H+ ( aq )
Initial 0.000381 0 0.000381
Change -x +x +x
Equilibrium 0.000381-x +x 0.000381 +x

Ka2 = [A2- ] [ H+ ] / [HA-]

6.1 × 10 -9 = [x] [0.000381 +x ] / [0.000381-x ]

Applying the approximation, we obtain

6.1 × 10 -9 = [x] [0.000381 ] / 0.000381

2.3241 x 10^ -12 = [x] [0.000381 ]

X = 2.3241 x 10^ -12 / 0.000381 = 6.1 x 10^-9 M

Here , x= [A2- ]= 6.1 x 10^-9 M

  • Fresitacou.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

21. Answer ALL parts of this question.
(a) Explain in detail how would you prepare 350cm3 of a H2SO4 solution of
2.00M concentration, using 18.0M H2SO4 and water?
(5 marks)
(b) Calculate the pH of the solution of the H2SO4 solution prepared in (a).
(3 marks)
(c) 10.0mL of the solution in (a) above was then titrated against an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, and required 56cm3 of sodium hydroxide in order to fully neutralise. Calculate the concentration of the sodium hydroxide used.
(3 marks)
(d) Calculate the pH of the solution of the NaOH solution used in (c).
(3 marks)
(e) What volume of the H2SO4 solution prepared in (a) would be required to
fully neutralise 27g of Na2CO3?
(f) Draw out the balanced equation you used for the reaction in part (d).

Tina responded:

21. Answer ALL parts of this question.
(a) Explain in detail how would you prepare 350cm3 of a H2SO4 solution of 2.00M concentration, using 18.0M H2SO4 and water?

Answer)
Remember :
C1V2 = C2V2 where,
C1 = original concentration of the solution, before it gets watered down or diluted = 18M
C2 = final concentration of the solution, after dilution=2M
V1 = volume about to be diluted= ?
V2 = final volume after dilution = 350 ml (1 mL = 1 cm3 ) = 0.35 L

2 M x 0.35 L = 18M x V1

V1 = 2 M x 0.35 L / 18 M = 0.039 L or 39 ml

So we’ll take 39 ml of 18 M H2SO4 and rest 311 ml water to prepare 350 ml of 2M H2SO4 solution.

(b) Calculate the pH of the solution of the H2SO4 solution prepared in (a).

Answer)
H2SO4---------------> 2H+ + SO4-
2M 2 ( 2M ) 2M

[H+]=2[H2SO4]= 2( 2 M) =4 M
pH=-log[H+]= -log[4M] = -0.602

Negative pH is possible, but not something you can show in the lab.

(c) 10.0mL of the solution in (a) above was then titrated against an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, and required 56cm3 of sodium hydroxide in order to fully neutralise. Calculate the concentration of the sodium hydroxide used.

Answer)

MacidVacid = MbaseVbase

where
Macid = concentration of the acid = 2M
Vacid = volume of the acid = 10 ml = 0.01 L
Mbase = concentration of the base = ?
Vbase = volume of the base = 56 ml (1 mL = 1 cm3 )= 0.056 L
MacidVacid = MbaseVbase

2 M x 0.01 L = 0.056 L x Mbase

Mbase = 2 M x 0.01 L / 0.056 = 0.36 M = concentration of the sodium hydroxide used.

(d) Calculate the pH of the solution of the NaOH solution used in (c).

Answer)
[OH-]= 0.36 M

pOH= -log [ 0.36 ]= -log 0.36 = 0.44

pH=14 - POH = 14 -0.44= 13.56

(e) What volume of the H2SO4 solution prepared in (a) would be required to fully neutralise 27g of Na2CO3?

Answer) See Inbox

(f) Draw out the balanced equation you used for the reaction in part (e).
Answer) H2SO4 (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq) --> H2CO3 (s) + Na2SO4 (aq)

Please accept my answer,rate it and ask for any further clarification if needed. Thanks for using InstaEdu ! Answers attached in word format herewith. Thanks!

  • Neda.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Biology (College Advanced)

Someone asked:

Same paper

  • Drosophila.doc This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

The results from the group data agrees with the hypothesis assumed based on Mendel's
and Morgan's theory. For monohybrid cross , we predicted that the ratio would be 3:1 which complied with the X2 values . The probability of deviation is between 20- 50%, whereas for class data the X2 value was rejected because Drosophila groups were growing slowly in few groups. The dihybrid cross group data showed more accurate results than the class data because some student groups performing the experiment did not have enough growing flies which made it hard to get precise results. According to the calculated values of X2, the probability that the results are accurate is between 50- 80%. Also, the X2 value for sex-linked cross indicate that there is 80- 90% probability that the deviation is accidental. The X2 values for all the crosses exhibit the accuracy of this experiment as a group rather than as a class. The class X2 values could have been more accurate but few student groups had problems with their Drosophila organism
producing more off springs which caused lot of experimental error.

Subject: Biology (College Advanced)

Someone asked:

Please take a look at this paper for me.

  • Drosophila.doc This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

Abstract

This experiment discusses monohybrid, dihybrid and sex-linked traits. Monohybrid

cross is a genetic cross using a single trait with two alleles to study the segregation of

genes resulting in a characteristic distribution of first and second-generation (F1 and F2)

offsprings. Two homozygous parents produce the first filial (F1) generation in which

every member is heterozygous. Crossing two members of the F1 generation produces

the second filial (F2) generation in which three quarters of the F2 generation will have

the dominant allele's phenotype and the remaining quarter have the recessive allele's

phenotype . In dihyrid cross, genes are on separate chromosomes and each allele pair

shows independent segregation. If the first filial generation (F1 generation) produces

four offspring, the second filial generation shows a phenotypic (appearance) ratio of

9:3:3:1 . Lastly Sex linked cross is the phenotypic expression of an allele related to the

chromosomal sex of the individual. Drosophila Melanogaster is used in this experiment.

Introduction

Drosophila melanogaster is frequently used in genetics. It is commonly known as

fruit fly as it is found in spoiled fruits like banana, apples, and oranges. This organism is a

genetic model organism because they have very short life, low maintenance and can

produce numerous offsprings necessary for research purposes. In this experiment, D.

Melanogaster was used to visualize the ideas of Gregor Mendel's and Thomas Hunt

Morgan .Father of genetics, Gregor Mendel's discovered laws of segregation and

independent assortment. Law of segregation states that each trait has two alleles, and in

gametes there is only one copy of each trait, one from each parent. This law of

segregation was tested by a monohybrid cross between wild body and a ebony body to

study the body color. In the F1 generation all flies were brown, but in F2 generation

brown body color was dominant over ebony body color, resulting in the phenotypic

ratio of 3:1 ( Brown : Ebony ).

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

Sure no problem, Tina - here are the questions again. Thank you for your help!

  • Chapter 7%2c Chem HW.docx This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

a) We know that for electron De Broglie wavelength for electron is given by:
λ = h/mv
= 6.63 x 10^-34 /(9.11 x10^-31 x 6.15 x 10^6) = 6.63 x 10^-34 / 56.03 x 10^-25
= 1.18 x 10^-10 m

Now for proton we have λ = h/mv
= 6.63 x 10^-34 / (1.67 x 10^-27* 3.4 x10^6 )
= 6.63 x 10^-34 / 5.678 x 10^-21
= 1.17 x 10^-13 m
b) When kinetic energy is same
we have wavelength λ = hc/E
= 6.63 x 10^-34 x 3 x 10^8/ 2.61x 10^-15
= 7.62 x 10^-11 m
Here the wavelength of both electron and proton will be the same i.e 7.62 x 10^-11 m.

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

Hi Tina.
Could u do those questions? I'm waiting
Many thanks
Neda

Tina responded:

See inbox. Thanks!

Feedback:

Subject: Anatomy

Someone asked:

List the special senses and describe their roles in the nervous system.

NO COPYING AND PASTING PLEASE.

500 words or more with references (APA format)

Tina responded:

See Inbox

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

How many kilo carbon do you need to produce 1000 kilo SiMn.

Mn = 70,5 %
Si = 19 %
C = 1,5 %

Reaction

MnO + C --> Mn + CO

SiO2 + C --> Si + CO

molarweight

Mn = 54,94 g/mol
Si = 28,09 g/mol

Tina responded:

See inbox

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry (College Intro)

Someone asked:

If an Alka-Seltzer tablet contained 301. mg of aspirin, 1941. mg of sodium hydrogen carbonate (also known as sodium bicarbonate), and 1016. mg of citric acid and nothing else, what is the percent, by mass, of sodium hydrogen carbonate in the tablet?

Question number 2.
Using the tablet information from Question 1, calculate the moles of CO2 you would theoretically expect from 0.221 grams of an Alka-Seltzer tablet at 729. torr and 299. K.

Question number 3.
You conduct an experiment where N2 is collected over water in a 1.61 L flask at 17.oC. At the conclusion of the experiment, the total pressure in the flask is 554. torr. What is the pressure of N2 in the flask?

Question number 4.
A student reacted a sample of NaHCO3 with acid under the same conditions that will be used in lab. The total volume of gas collected plus the correction factor was 50.8 mL at a total pressure of 674. torr and 23.oC. How many moles of CO2(g) were produced?

  • chem.docx This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

See inbox.

Subject: Anatomy

Someone asked:

Compare and contrast the Somatic Nervous System with the Autonomic Nervous System. Describe a disorder in detail that affects one of these systems  .

NO COPYING AND PASTING!!!
References needed more than 500 words

Tina responded:

See Inbox. Thanks!

Feedback:

Subject: Biology (College Advanced)

Someone asked:

Sorry, I accidently cancelled the question.

Both thyroxine and thyroid hormone receptors but not thyrotropin are found in Amphioxus. Provide an explanation(s) in less than 100 words

Tina responded:

Amphioxus lacks the pituitary hormone which regulates thyrotropin , which suggests that TSH regulating function of TRH is a late evolutionary development and that the pituitary elected TRH as a regulatory hormone after a while.

Amphioxus also has a gene for thyrostimulin, which is ancestral to three of the pituitary hormones (follicle stimulating hormone, FSH, luteinizing hormone, LH, and thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH) (Sudo et al. 2005). However, amphioxus does not appear to have homologs of several vertebrate pituitary hormones [i.e., growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and prolactin]. Not only were they not detected in the amphioxus genome, but neither were their receptors, Hence, these hormones may be only found in vertebrates.

Amphioxus does not produce either lutenizing hormone (LH) or follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). However, it does produce gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) which act directly on the gonads.

References :

1. Sudo S1, Kuwabara Y, Park JI, Hsu SY, Hsueh AJ.,Heterodimeric fly glycoprotein hormone-alpha2 (GPA2) and glycoprotein hormone-beta5 (GPB5) activate fly leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor-1 (DLGR1) and stimulation of human thyrotropin receptors by chimeric fly GPA2 and human GPB5. Endocrinology. 2005 Aug;146(8):3596-604. Epub 2005 May 12.

2. Tello JA1, Rivier JE, Sherwood NM.Tunicate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) peptides selectively activate Ciona intestinalis GnRH receptors and the green monkey type II GnRH receptor. Endocrinology. 2005 Sep;146(9):4061-73. Epub 2005 Jun 16.

Feedback:

Subject: Biology (College Advanced)

Someone asked:

I need a good overview of dihybrid punnet squares, sex linked punnet squares, and incomplete dominance

Tina responded:

Dihybrid Punnet Squares :

Dihybrid crosses involve two traits and how these traits will show up in the offspring produced by a mating between two parent organisms. A dihybrid cross involves two alleles per trait for two traits, for a total of four alleles.
The first step to solving a dihybrid cross is to see how the various alleles combine in the gametes. The principle of independent assortment explains this combining of alleles.

Independent assortment means that each allele of a particular trait has an equal chance of being in a gamete with each of the alleles of the other trait resulting in allele pairing—alleles for the different traits pair. Independent assortment occurs during meiosis.

This Punnett square provides the predicted results of combining each of the gametes in the mating of the parents . These type of crosses can be challenging to set up, and the square you create will be 4x4.

The traits of the offspring can be determined by filling in the Punnett square based on the alleles (in each gamete) that intersect in each of the squares.
The gamete combinations predict which offspring (F2 generation) can be produced from these F1 parents. The phenotypic ratio (relative count of trait combinations) can now be determined. It is recommended that phenotypes be written in each square when working a Punnett square problem.

Remember that phenotype is determined by genotype. Therefore, the phenotypes can be determined by the alleles in each offspring square: an uppercase letter represents a dominant allele. Any offspring with one uppercase letter for a particular trait will have that trait .The purpose of determining the phenotypic ratio is to reveal an inheritance pattern. If the pattern
is known, then the type of inheritance can often be determined. For example, the phenotypic ratio between the cross of two heterozygous individuals will be 9:3:3:1. This pattern is characteristic of a cross between two heterozygous parents with traits that exhibit complete dominance. The 9:3:3:1 ration would NOT be produced by any other combination of alleles, nor would this ratio result from traits exhibiting incomplete or codominance.

Summary :

a) The inheritance patterns of two traits is studied in dihybrid crosses.

b) The first step to solving a dihybrid cross is to see how the alleles of each trait

could possibly combine during gamete formation.

c) The next step is to use a Punnett square to determine how these gametes

could combine to form offspring (F2 generation).

d) The phenotypes can be determined after the genotypes of the offspring are

determined.

e) A 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio is determined for complete dominance. The

9:3:3:1 ratio is typical for a dihybrid cross between two heterozygous individuals .
Sex linked punnet squares

In dihybrid cross , the genes are on different pairs of chromosomes. In linked genes , the genes involved are on the same chromosome. Hence, the phenotype ratio for sex linked cross is 3:1, not 9:3:3:1 as would be expected for a “normal” dihybrid cross . The important thing to remember about sex-linked traits is that the females may be homozygous or heterozygous while the males are hemizygous. That is, the males have one functional gene and a Y-chromosome. Males give their X-chromosomes (with the functional genes) to their daughters and their Y-chromosomes to their sons. For sex-linked traits, males get all of their functional genes from their mother.

In sex-linked genes, genes located on one of the sex chromosomes (X or Y) but not the other. Since, typically the X chromosome is longer, it bears a lot of genes not found on the Y chromosome, thus most sex-linked genes are X-linked genes.
An X chromosome carrying a normal, dominant allele would be symbolized by a plain X, while the recessive, mutant, allele would be symbolized by X'. A genotype XX' would normally be a female with the dominant trait, yet would be a carrier for the recessive allele. Because a male typically only has one X chromosome, he would normally be either XY and show dominant trait
, or X'Y and show recessive trait. The only way a female with two X chromosomes could have recessive traits is if she would get an X' allele from both parents making her X'X' genotype.

Typically, X-linked traits show up more in males than females because typical XY males only have one X chromosome, so if they get the allele on their X chromosome, they show the trait. If a typical XX female is a carrier, 50% of her sons will get that X chromosome and show the trait.

In order for an XX female to exhibit one of these X-linked traits, most of which are recessive mutations, she would have to have two copies of the allele (X'X'), which would mean that her mother would have to be a carrier and her father have the trait so she could get one allele from each of them.

In humans, two well-known X-linked traits are hemophilia and colorblindness. Hemophilia is the failure (lack of genetic code) to produce certain substance needed for proper blood-clotting, so a hemophiliac’s blood doesn’t clot, and (s)he could bleed to death from an injury that a normal person might not even notice. Again, colorblindness and hemophilia, while rare overall,
are more common in XY males, because they only have one X chromosome. For an XX woman to be colorblind, for example, her mother would have to be a carrier for the trait and her father would have to be colorblind. If by some chance, considering the overall rareness of the allele, two such people met and married, 50% of their daughters would be colorblind.

Incomplete dominance :

Offspring have an appearance somewhat in between the phenotypes of the two parents : “Mixed” or Blended. Incomplete dominance occurs when two or more alleles influence the phenotype and neither allele is completely dominant over the other. Incomplete dominance helps to account for some of the variations that make nature so amazing and that make people and animals unique. Incomplete dominance is a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele
for a specific trait is not completely dominant over the other allele. This results in a third phenotype in which the expressed physical trait is a combination of the dominant and recessive phenotypes. For example, curly hair + straight hair = wavy hair. Overall, with incomplete dominance, just because an allele is "dominant" doesn't mean that that allele will be expressed more in the phenotype.

References :

Borror, Donald J. 1960. Dictionary of Root Words and Combining Forms. Mayfield Publ. Co. Brewster, Hugh. 1996. Anastasia’s Album. Madison Press Books, Toronto, Ontario

Campbell, Neil A., Lawrence G. Mitchell, Jane B. Reece. 1999. Biology, 5th Ed. Benjamin/Cummings Publ. Co., Inc. Menlo Park, CA. (plus earlier editions)

Campbell, Neil A., Lawrence G. Mitchell, Jane B. Reece. 1999. Biology: Concepts and Connections, 3rd Ed. Benjamin/Cummings Publ. Co., Inc. Menlo Park, CA. (plus earlier editions)

Marchuk, William N. 1992. A Life Science Lexicon. Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, IA.

  • Suzannah.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Biochemistry

Someone asked:

An example of a unsaturated fatty acid is cis-11-heptadecenoic acid. If this compound is oxidized down to CO2 and water via β-oxidation and subsequent pathways, how many ATP equivalents can be obtained? Show all work and list where all of the ATPs come from.

Write a balanced stoichiometric equation for the synthesis of squalene from acetyl-CoA. Indicate the reactions you used to determine your answer and show all work.

Tina responded:

H3C-(CH2)3HC=CH-(CH2)9COO-
11-cis-heptadecenoic acid is metabolized by means of seven cycles of Beta -oxidation, leaving a propionyl-CoA as the final product. However, the fifth cycle bypasses the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase reaction, because a cis-double bond is already present at the proper position. Thus, Beta-oxidation produces 7 NADH (= 21 ATP), 6 FADH2 (=12 ATP), and 7 acetyl-CoA (=96 ATP) for a total of 129 ATP. Propinoyl-CoA is converted to succinyl-CoA (with the expenditure of 1 ATP), which can be converted to oxaloacetate in the TCA cycle (with the production of 1 GTP, 1 FADH2, and 1 NADH) [= 6 ATP]. Oxaloacetate can be converted to pyruvate (with no net ATP formed or consumed), and pyruvate can be metabolized in the TCA cycle (producing 1 GTP, 1 FADH2, and 4 NADH) [= 16 ATP]. The net for these conversions of propionate is 21 ATP. The total ATP yield is 150 ATP.

  • David.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Physics

Someone asked:

http://imgur.com/jMiS59n

Questions 1,2, 4,5,7,8,10,12. Answers are here scroll down to page 378 (http://ebookbrowsee.net/giancoli-physics-6th-solutions-pdf-d191503482)

Tina responded:

See Inbox. Thanks!

Subject: Biochemistry

Someone asked:

The formation of foam cells from macrophages represents the first step in the development of arteriosclerosis.

1 Explain how healthy cells regulates the amount of cholesterol uptake from circulating lipoproteins such as LDL?
2 Explain the process by which foam cells develop and describe how this process is separated from the uptake of normal LDL in peripheral cells.
3 Which enzyme is upregulated during the formation of foam cells and the consequence of this?
4 Enter the two drugs, often used to treat patients with signs of arteriosclerosis. Explain why this works best when used together?

Tina responded:

See Inbox. Thanks!

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

Request 1 hour of time for lab assistance

Tina responded:

Answer attached herewith. Please accept my answer,rate it and ask for any further clarification if needed. Thanks for using InstaEdu!

  • Thomas.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Biology (College Advanced)

Someone asked:

Research papar

Tina responded:

See Inbox. Thanks!

Feedback:

Subject: Anatomy

Someone asked:

What exercise is best for muscle isometric or isotonic? At least 100 words

Tina responded:

See inbox

Subject: Basic Biology

Someone asked:

There are 3 pages. Let me know if you get the picture

Tina responded:

You got everything correct. Nicely done. Please accept my answer,rate it and ask for any further clarification if needed. I did not get the first page. Received only two pages. Inbox me the remaining page. Thanks for using InstaEdu!

Subject: Basic Biology

Someone asked:

Here is second page

Tina responded:

You got Question 5th wrong. Rest everything looks great. Great job on that one! Nicely done. Correct answer attached herewith.
Please accept my answer,rate it and ask for any further clarification if needed. Thanks for using InstaEdu!
4. When a Tall plant is crossed with a short plant, % of offspring who will be short is : 100%

  • Emily.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Biology (College Intro)

Someone asked:

help with lab questions page 5-6 and page 7 with explanation...thanks

  • Intro Bio Lab 12.pdf This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

1. Using red, blue, yellow and green beads, devise and lay out a three color code for each of the following letters (codon).

For example Z = green:red:green.

In the spaces below the letter, record your “code”.

C: green:red:green

E: red:green:red

H:red:blue:red

I: Blue:red:blue

K: Blue:yellow:blue

L:Yellow:blue:yellow

M: yellow:green:yellow

O: green:yellow:green

S: red:blue:yellow

T: blue:yellow:green

U: yellow:green:red

Start: yellow:blue:red
Stop: green:yellow:blue
Space:red:green:yellow

2. Using this code, align the beads corresponding to the appropriate letter to write the following sentence (don’t forget start, space and stop):

The mouse likes most cheese
A. How many beads did you use?
Answer ) 87

yellow:blue:red (Start) blue:yellow:green (T) red:blue:red ( H ) red:green:red (E)
red:green:yellow (Space) yellow:green:yellow (M) green:yellow:green (O) yellow:green:red (U) red:blue:yellow (S) red:green:red (E) red:green:yellow (Space) Yellow:blue:yellow (L) Blue:red:blue (l) Blue:yellow:blue (K) red:green:red (E) red:blue:yellow (S) red:green:yellow
(Space) yellow:green:yellow (M) green:yellow:green (O) red:blue:yellow (S)
blue:yellow:green (T) red:green:yellow (Space) green:red:green (C) red:blue:red (H) red:green:red (E) red:green:red (E) red:blue:yellow (S) red:green:red (E) green:yellow:blue ( STOP)
Remove codons (beads) 52‐66
B. What does the sentence say now? (re‐read the entire sentence)
The mouse likes cheese.
Using the sentence from exercise 1B:

3. Change the 24th bead to a different color.

yellow:blue:red (Start) blue:yellow:green (T) red:blue:red ( H ) red:green:red (E)
red:green:yellow (Space) yellow:green:yellow (M) green:yellow:green (O) yellow:green:yellow (M) red:blue:yellow (S) red:green:red (E) red:green:yellow (Space) Yellow:blue:yellow (L) Blue:red:blue (l) Blue:yellow:blue (K) red:green:red (E) red:blue:yellow (S) red:green:yellow
(Space) green:red:green (C) red:blue:red (H) red:green:red (E) red:green:red (E) red:blue:yellow (S) red:green:red (E) green:yellow:blue ( STOP)

A. What does the sentence say now? (re‐read the entire sentence)

The momse likes cheese.

B. Does it make sense?
No
4. Replace the 24th bead and remove the 20th bead (remember what was there).

yellow:blue:red (Start) blue:yellow:green (T) red:blue:red ( H ) red:green:red (E)
red:green:yellow (Space) yellow:green:yellow (M) blue:yellow:green (T) yellow:green:red (U) red:blue:yellow (S) red:green:red (E) red:green:yellow (Space) Yellow:blue:yellow (L) Blue:red:blue (l) Blue:yellow:blue (K) red:green:red (E) red:blue:yellow (S) red:green:yellow (Space) green:red:green (C) red:blue:red (H) red:green:red (E) red:green:red (E) red:blue:yellow
(S) red:green:red (E) green:yellow:blue ( STOP)

A. What does the sentence say (re‐read the entire sentence)?

The mtuse likes cheese.
B. Does it make sense?

No

C. Where does it make sense?
Nowhere
5. Replace the 20th bead and add one between 50 & 51.

yellow:blue:red (Start) blue:yellow:green (T) red:blue:red ( H ) red:green:red (E)
red:green:yellow (Space) yellow:green:yellow (M) green:yellow:green (O) yellow:green:red (U) red:blue:yellow (S) red:green:red (E) red:green:yellow (Space) Yellow:blue:yellow (L) Blue:red:blue (l) Blue:yellow:blue (K) red:green:red (E) red:blue:yellow (S) red:green:blue:yellow (Space) green:red:green (C) red:blue:red (H) red:green:red (E) red:green:red (E) red:blue:yellow(S) red:green:red (E) green:yellow:blue ( STOP)

A. What does the sentence say?

The mouse likescheese

B. Does it make sense?
No

C. In “C” we mutated one letter. What role do you think the redundancy of the genetic code plays, in light of this change?

Answer)

The genetic code has 64 codons which codes for 20 amino acids. The ability of the redundancies allows for different variation of codons to code for the same amino acids. The benefit of this is that even if there is a mistake in the base pairing, the amino acid might can be unaffected.

Basically, this allows amino acids to be represented in more than on combination.

D. Based on your observations, why do you suppose the mutations we made in “D” and “E” are called frame shift mutations.

Answer)

Frame shift mutations are the type of mutation caused by the addition or deletion of a base pair in the DNA resulting in the translation of the genetic code in an unnatural reading frame from the position of the mutation to the end of the gene. In the the mutations we made in “D” and “E” , we added and deleted beads resulting in an incorrect sentence which does not make sense.

E. Which mutations do you suspect have the greatest consequence? Why?

I would say Frame shift mutations are the worst. DNA is read in triplets so everything would get moved forward or backwards.

Write a five word sentence using no more than eight different letters.

Tea is a never ever

Letters used : T,E,A,I,S,N,V,R

2. Using the four colored beads, create “codons” (three beads) for each letter in your sentence, plus ones for “start, “space” and stop”.

E: red:green:red

I: Blue:red:blue

T: blue:yellow:green

A: green:red:green

N: yellow:green:yellow

V: green:yellow:green

S: red:blue:yellow

R: yellow:green:red

Start: yellow:blue:red
Stop: green:yellow:blue
Space:red:green:yellow

3. “Write” the sentence using the beads.

Start: yellow:blue:red T: blue:yellow:green E: red:green:red A: green:red:green
Space:red:green:yellow I: Blue:red:blue S: red:blue:yellow Space:red:green:yellow A:

green:red:green Space:red:green:yellow N: yellow:green:yellow E: red:green:red V: green:yellow:green E: red:green:red R: yellow:green:red Space:red:green:yellow E: red:green:red V: green:yellow:green E: red:green:red R: yellow:green:red Stop: green:yellow:blue

A. How many beads did you use?

63

4. Using your “pop it” beads, assign one bead for each codon (you do not need beads for start,stop and space). These will be your amino acids. Connect the “pop it” beads to build the chain of amino acids that codes for your sentence (leave out the “start”, “stop” and “space”).

A. How many different amino acids did you use?

Eight

T: blue:yellow:green E: red:green:red A: green:red:green
I: Blue:red:blue S: red:blue:yellow

A:green:red:green

N: yellow:green:yellow E: red:green:red V:green:yellow:green E: red:green:red

R: yellow:green:red

E:red:green:red V: green:yellow:green E: red:green:red R: yellow:green:red

B. How many total amino acids did you use?

Fifteen

  • Brandon.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Biology (College Advanced)

Someone asked:

Bio paper

Tina responded:

See inbox. Thanks for using InstaEdu.

Feedback:

Subject: Natural Sciences

Someone asked:

Series of questions about happiness I need through answers but not over the top neither.
What does happiness mean to you?
Has your definition of happiness changed over time
What experiences have influenced your definition
Do you expect the definition to change again
Do you think that you were happier as a child compared to what you are now as an adult? why?
Do you think that you could achieve the most happiness intristically or through external means
what was your happiest moment or what do you think your happiest moment will be

Tina responded:

"Sending later via message. Okay by Claire at InstaEDU"

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

a) Calculate the number of moles of sodium benzoate (NaC7H5O2) that must be added to a 1.60 L solution of 3.18 M solution of benzoic acid (HC7H5O2) to initially adjust the pH to a value of 4.45.
b) Calculate the new pH when 82.0 mL of a 2.65 M solution of HNO3 is added to 745 mL of the solution above.

Tina responded:

Please see Inbox. Thanks for using InstaEdu!

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

Hi Tina, I am having trouble balancing an equation. HC2H3O2+Ba(OH)2-->H2O+Ba(C2H3O2)2

Tina responded:

This is a simple acid-base equation. Acid will combine with the base to form water.
So, you have:

CH3COOH + Ba(OH)2 -> H2O + Ba(CH3COO)2

Now, you need to count the elements on each side of the equation to check if they are balanced.

There are 6 H atoms on the left side, but there are 8 H atoms on the right side.
There are 2 atoms of C on the left side of the equation, but there are 4 on the right.
There are 4 atoms of O on the left side, but there are 5 on the right side.
And there are 2 atoms of Ba on both sides.

So, the H, C, and O need to be balanced.

By placing coefficients in front of compounds in the formula, you can easily balance the equation.

Balanced equation:
2 CH3COOH + Ba(OH)2 -> 2 H20 + Ba(CH3COO)2

To check, again count the number of elements on each side of the equation.
There are 10 H atoms on both sides, 4 C atoms on both sides, 6 O atoms on both sides, and 2 Ba atoms on both sides.

The chemical equation is balanced. Please ask for any further clarification if needed. Thanks for using CourseHero!

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

1. A 20.0 mL sample of 0.20 M HI is titrated with 0.10 M KOH. Determine the pH of the solution after the addition of 200.0 mL of KOH.

2. Then Henry’s Law constant for H2S is 0.098 M/atm.
a. Determine the concentration of H2S dissolved in water when the pressure of H2S above the solution is 1.20 atm.
b. Determine the pH of a solution

3. . At 400 K, the equilibrium constant for the reaction: Br2(g) + Cl2(g) ⇄ 2BrCl(g) is Kp = 7.00 A closed vessel at 400 K is charged with 1.00 atm of Br2 (g), 1.00 atm of Cl2 (g), and 2.00 atm of BrCl (g). Determine the equilibrium pressures of each gas.

4. Determine the molar solubility of BaF2 in a solution containing 0.0750 M LiF

Tina responded:

Please see Inbox. Thanks!

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

1. _____ Which of the following compounds will be more soluble in acidic solution than in pure water?
A) PbCl2 B) FeS C) Ca(ClO4)2 D) CuI
E) None of the above will be more soluble in acidic solution.

2. _____ A solution containing CaCl2 is mixed with a solution of lithium oxalate, Li2C2O4, to form a solution that is 2.1 × 10-5 M in calcium ion and 4.75 × 10-5 M in oxalate ion. What will happen once these solutions are mixed? Ksp (CaC2O4) = 2.3 × 10-9.
A) A precipitate will form since Q > Ksp for calcium oxalate.
B) Nothing will happen since both calcium chloride and lithium oxalate are soluble compounds.
C) Nothing will happen since calcium oxalate is extremely soluble.
D) Nothing will happen since Ksp > Q for all possible precipitants.
E) There is not enough information to determine

3. _____ The equilibrium constant is given for two of the reactions below. Determine the value of the missing equilibrium constant.
A(g) + B(g) ⇄ AB(g) Kc = 0.24
AB(g) + A(g) ⇄ A2B(g) Kc = 3.8
2 A(g) + B(g) ⇄ A2B(g) Kc = ?
A) 4.0 B) 0.91 C) 3.6 D) 16 E) 0.63

4. _____ Commercial grade HCl solutions are typically 39.0% (by mass) HCl in water. Determine the molality of the HCl, if the solution has a density of 1.20 g/mL.
A) 39.0 m B) 17.5 m C) 6.39 m D) 10.7 m E) 9.44 m

5. _____ The dissolution of BaF2 is endothermic. Which of the following steps will increase the concentration of Ba2+ in a solution containing solid BaF2?
A) Lowering the temperature
B) Adding HF
C) Adding NaOH
D) Adding HCl
E) Adding H2O

6. _____ Which one of the following is most soluble in hexane (C6H14)?
A) CH3OH
B) CH3CH2CH2OH
C) CH3CH2OH
D) CH3CH2CH2CH2OH
E) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH

7. _____ The graph to the right represents the titration curve for a 0.10 M solution of a weak acid being titrated with 0.10 M NaOH. Which of the following acids could be represented by this curve?
A) Boric acid
B) Chlorous acid
C) Hydrocyanic acid
D) Hydrochloric acid
E) Benzoic acid

8. _____ Which compound has the highest boiling point?
A) CBr4
B) C12H26
C) CI4
D) N2
E) O2

9. _____ Arrange the following gases in order of increasing (slowest to fastest) average molecular speed at 25°C. He, O2, CO2, N2
A) He < N2 < O2 < CO2
B) He < O2 < N2 < CO2
C) CO2 < O2 < N2 < He
D) CO2 < N2 < O2 < He
E) CO2 < He < N2 < O2

Don't worry about explaining too much. Just the answer and simple reasoning.

Tina responded:

1. _____ Which of the following compounds will be more soluble in acidic solution than in pure water?

A) PbCl2 B) FeS C) Ca(ClO4)2 D) CuI E) None of the above will be more soluble in acidic solution.

Answer)

FeS. Sulfides are insoluble in water, but soluble in acid. Reacts with the acid to make the iron (II) salt and H2S gas.

2. _____ A solution containing CaCl2 is mixed with a solution of lithium oxalate, Li2C2O4, to form a solution that is 2.1 × 10-5 M in calcium ion and 4.75 × 10-5 M in oxalate ion. What will happen once these solutions are mixed? Ksp (CaC2O4) = 2.3 × 10-9.
A) A precipitate will form since Q > Ksp for calcium oxalate.
B) Nothing will happen since both calcium chloride and lithium oxalate are soluble compounds.
C) Nothing will happen since calcium oxalate is extremely soluble.
D) Nothing will happen since Ksp > Q for all possible precipitants.
E) There is not enough information to determine

Answer)

Ksp = [Ca+2][C2O4-2] = 2.3x10^-9
Q = (2.1x10^-5)(4.75x10^-5) = 9.975x10^-10
Ksp > Q
Nothing will happen since Ksp > Q for all possible precipitants

3. _____ The equilibrium constant is given for two of the reactions below. Determine the value of the missing equilibrium constant.
A(g) + B(g) ⇄ AB(g) Kc = 0.24
AB(g) + A(g) ⇄ A2B(g) Kc = 3.8
2 A(g) + B(g) ⇄ A2B(g) Kc = ?
A) 4.0 B) 0.91 C) 3.6 D) 16 E) 0.63

Answer)
Multiply the equilibrium expression for the first reaction by the second one

[AB] / [A] [B] x [A2B] / [AB] [A]
= [A2B] / [A]^2 [B] = 0.24 x 3.8 = 0.91

4. _____ Commercial grade HCl solutions are typically 39.0% (by mass) HCl in water. Determine the molality of the HCl, if the solution has a density of 1.20 g/mL.
A) 39.0 m B) 17.5 m C) 6.39 m D) 10.7 m E) 9.44 m

Answer)

Assume you have 1 L of solution.
molality = mol HCl / kg water
d = m/V
m = d x V = 1.20 g/mL x 1000 mL = 1200 g solution

1200 g solution x 39% = 468 g pure HCl
mass of water = 1200 g - 468 g = 732 g H2O

468 g HCl x (1 mol / 36.5 g) = 12.8 mol HCl

molality = mol HCl / kg water = 12.8 mol / 0.732 kg = 17.5 molal

Feedback:

Subject: Earth Science

Someone asked:

What soil property would you check if plants in your greenhouse showed signs of micronutrient deficiency?

Tina responded:

Plants need seventeen different nutrients to grow including nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium

which are called macronutrients and applied as fertilizers. They require micronutrients in less

amounts but these nutrients are important to plant growth.Plant growth can be inhibited if any

deficiency arise.

Plants take all their nutrients from the soil, but not all of them are accessible to plants. That’s

because soil pH affects the solubility of nutrients. High soil pH leads to deficiencies

of micronutrients such as iron and manganese, whereas low soil pH leads to toxicities of certain

elements such as aluminum. A soil’s pH is major reason that affect the quality of plant growth.

Soil pH directly affects nutrient availability and plant growth .
Most nutrients are at their optimal availability to plants when the soil pH is between 6 and 7.
Another important factor is Soil texture. Soil shortages of magnesium and potassium are more
common on light, chalky or sandy soils where these salts can get easily washed away. On the
other hand, clay soils, hold potassium within their structure.
Lastly, Cation exchange capacity and sodicity plays their roles as well. They affect the soil's
fertility and its ability to hold nutrients.The sodicity of the soil, which affects soil stability.
Sodicity is the amount of exchangeable sodium cations compared to other cations adsorbed onto the
soil. A soil with 6% or more of its exchangeable cations as sodium is called a sodic soil.

Please ask for any further clarification if needed. Thanks for using InstaEdu!

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

Could you figure this one out?

View problem in attachment

http://i.imgur.com/eqSoUYm.png

its due in about 7 hours. If you can't get it lemme know b4

Tina responded:

See Inbox

Subject: Biology (College Advanced)

Someone asked:

"My work"

  • Homework Problems Chapter 6 (1).docx This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

See Inbox

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

written lesson

  • Colorful Solutions of Iron (II) and Iron (III) Complexes1.ppt This attachment has been locked.
  • Colorful Solutions of Iron (II) and Iron (III) Complexes1.ppt This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

See inbox

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

1.How many grams of water are needed to react with 30.8 g of Ca3P2 in the following reaction Ca3P2 + 6H20 > 3Ca(OH)2 +2 PH3

2. How many grams of chlorine are needed to react with 30.2 g of CS2 in the following reaction CS2 +3 Cl2 > S2Cl2 + CCl4

3.How many grams of Na3PO4 are needed to react with 2.061 moles of Ba(NO3)2 in the reaction 2Na3PO4 +3 Ba(NO3)2 >Ba3 (PO4)2 + 6 NaNO3

4.How many grams of O2 would be needed to react with 7.824 moles of CS2 in the reaction CS2 +3O2 >CO2 +2SO2

5.How many moles of CO would be needed to reduce 22.5 grams of iron(III) oxide if the equation for the reaction is Fe2O3 + 3C > 2Fe+2CO2

6.How many moles of O2 are needed to oxidize 9.43 grams of CuFeS2 in the reaction 2CuFeS2+ 5O2 > 2Cu+ 2FeO+4SO2

Tina responded:

See inbox. Thanks!

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

What is the meq/L if my analytical value for Ca+2 is 60.0 mg/L?
What is the mmol/L if my analytical value for Cl- is 87.0 mg/L
I am measuring 22.2 mg/L of Si. What is the equivalent concentration of SiO4?
What is the concentration of Hydronium ions in mg/L for a water sample with a pH of 1?
I am measuring 136.7 mg/L of Na. What is the equivalent concentration of NaAlSi3O8?
Combining Calcium and Sulfate Ions would make which of the following compounds?
CaSO4 CaS
Ca(SO4)2
CaS2
Ca2SO4
Ca2(SO4)2
Ca3(SO4)2
Ca2(SO4)3
An unknown water sample shows a sulfate absorbance of 0.57. What is the sulfate concentration of the water sample in mg/L?

< 61.0 mg/L

61.0 mg/L

61.5 mg/L

62.0 mg/L

62.5 mg/L

63.0 mg/L

63.5 mg/L

> 63.5 mg/L

An analysis of a water sample yields data as shown. What would be the best hydrochemical classification for the water?

Na 335.0 mg/L
K 13.3 mg/L
Ca 52.1 mg/L
Mg 3.0 mg/L
Cl 222.0 mg/L
SO4 490.0 mg/L
HCO3 88.5 mg/L
a.
Sodium and/or Potassium
b.
Calcium
c.
Magnesium
d.
Chloride
e.
Sulfate
f.
Bicarbonate and/or Carbonate

Tina responded:

Please accept my answer,rate it and ask for any further clarification if needed. Thanks for using InstaEdu !

1.What is the meq/L if my analytical value for Ca+2 is 60.0 mg/L?

Answer )

Molar mass of Calcium= 40 g/mol , Valency = +2
mEq = (mg X valence)/atomic weight
= ( 60 x 2 ) / 40 = 3 mEq/L

2.What is the mmol/L if my analytical value for Cl- is 87.0 mg/L?

Answer )

Molar mass of Cl = 35.453 g/mol
To go from mmol/L to mg/L, multiply by the molecular weight.
To go from mg/L to mmol/L, divide by the molecular weight.
87/35.5 = 2.45 mmol/L

3. I am measuring 22.2 mg/L of Si. What is the equivalent concentration of SiO4?
Answer )
Molar Mass of Si= 28.09 g/mol
22.2 mg/L = 0.0222 g / L
Number of moles = Amount in grams / Molar Mass = 0.0222 / 28.09 = 0.00079 moles /L
Equivalent concentration of SiO4 = Moles of Si x Molar mass of SiO4

= 0.00079 moles/Lx 92.08 g / mol

= 0.073 g/L

4.What is the concentration of Hydronium ions in mg/L for a water sample with a pH of 1?

Answer )

pH= - log ( H^+ )
1= - log ( H^+)
( H^+ ) = 1.0 x 10^-1 = 0.1 M = 0.1 moles / L
Mass = 0.1 mole x 18 g/mol = 1.8 g = 1800 mg
Final answer= 1800 mg/L

5. I am measuring 136.7 mg/L of Na. What is the equivalent concentration of NaAlSi3O8?
Answer )
Molar Mass of Na= 23 g/mol
136.7 mg/L = 0.1367 g / L
Number of moles = Amount in grams / Molar Mass = 0.1367 / 23 = 0.00594 moles /L
Equivalent concentration of NaAlSi3O8 = Moles of Na x Molar mass of NaAlSi3O8

= 0.00594 moles/L x 262.2 g / mol

= 1.558 g/L
6. Combining Calcium and Sulfate Ions would make which of the following compounds?
Answer ) CaSO4
CaSO4
CaS
Ca(SO4)2
CaS2
Ca2SO4
Ca2(SO4)2
Ca3(SO4)2
Ca2(SO4)3

7.An unknown water sample shows a sulfate absorbance of 0.57. What is the sulfate concentration of the water sample in mg/L?
< 61.0 mg/L
61.0 mg/L
61.5 mg/L
62.0 mg/L
62.5 mg/L
63.0 mg/L
63.5 mg/L
> 63.5 mg/L
Answer )
Absorbance value= A+B× Sulfate concentration (in mg/L)

8.An analysis of a water sample yields data as shown. What would be the best hydrochemical classification for the water?

Answer:

Sulfate because its concentration is the largest.

Na 335.0 mg/L
K 13.3 mg/L
Ca 52.1 mg/L
Mg 3.0 mg/L
Cl 222.0 mg/L
SO4 490.0 mg/L
HCO3 88.5 mg/L
a.
Sodium and/or Potassium
b.
Calcium
c.
Magnesium
d.
Chloride
e.
Sulfate
f.
Bicarbonate and/or Carbonate

  • Will.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

7. a) Calculate the pH of a solution that results from mixing 50.0 mL of 0.15 M HCHO2 with 75.0 mL of 0.13M NaCHO2.
b) Calculate the pH if 10.0 mL of 0.25M HCl is added to the above solution.

http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20140305233843AACN6Mm

the Ka value can be grabbed from the answer provided above. the pKa is given in the answer

Tina responded:


Please accept my answer,rate it and ask for any further clarification if needed. Thanks for using InstaEdu !

Calculate the pH of a solution that results from mixing 50.0 mL of 0.15 M HCHO2 with 75.0 mL of 0.13M NaCHO2.

Reaction Involved:

HCOOH ( s) + NaOH (s) --> NaCOOH (s) + H2O (l)

First off we need to decide which of these is our acid and which is the base.

HCHO2 is formic acid - so it's the acid

NaCHO2 is sodium formate. In an aqueous solution it is present as a sodium ion (Na+) and a formate ion (CHO2-) because of the negative charge on the formate it can accept an H+ and is a base.

Now since we're working with a buffer we can use the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation:

pH = pKa + log (base/acid)

Quick note - In this equation you can use either moles of base and acid or concentration of base and acid, but you can only use concentration if the base and acid are contained in the same volume.

First step: work out the molarity of each component in the final buffer:

Final volume = 125 mL
Molarity of HCOOH = 50 x 0.15 / 125 = 0.06 M
Molarity of HCOONa = 75 x 0.13 / 125 = 0.078 M

To calculate pH, use the Henderson - Hasselbalch equation:
pKa HCOOH = 3.74
pH = pKa + log ([salt]/[acid])
pH = 3.74 + log ( 0.078/0.06)
pH = 3.74+log 1.3
pH = 3.74 + 0.114
pH = 3.85
On your scientific calculator, make sure you do the log first or enter it like this 3.74 +(log(0.07/0.06)) if you have a graphing calculator.

b) Calculate the pH if 10.0 mL of 0.25M HCl is added to the above solution.

Mole of HCl added = M x L = 0.25 mol/L x 0.010 L = 0.0025 mol H+
Since HCl is a strong acid, adding it will react with the conjugate base completely. This in turns creates more of the buffer acid. It changes 0.0025 moles/L of the the salt into the acid:
pH = 3.85 + log [(0.078 - 0.0025)/(0.06 + 0.0025)]
= 3.85 + log [ (0.0755 ) / ( 0.0625 )]
= 3.85 + 0.082 = 3.93

Feedback:

Subject: Biochemistry

Someone asked:

The oxidation of malate by NAD+ to form oxaloacetate is a highly endergonic reaction under standard conditions (ΔG°= +30.0 kJ/mol).

a) Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction at 25°C.

b) The measured concentration of L-malate in rat liver mitochondria is about 0.2 mM when [NAD+]/[NADH] is 10. Calculate the concentration of oxaloacetate at pH 7 in these mitochondria.

c) To appreciate the magnitude of the mitochondrial oxaloacetate concentration, calculate the number of oxaloacetate molecules in a single rat liver mitochondrion. Assume the mitochondrion is a sphere of diameter 2.0 μm.

Electron transport translocates protons across the mitochondrial membrane,establishing a pH gradient. The tendency of protons to diffuse back into the matrix is the driving force for ATP synthesis by ATP synthase. During oxidative phosphorylation by a suspension of liver mitochondria in a medium of pH 7.4, the pH of the matrix was measured as 7.7 and the membrane potential as 0.17 V.

a) Calculate the [H+] in the external medium and in the matrix under these conditions.

b) What is the outside:inside ratio of [H+]? Under the conditions listed, what is the free energy for the movement of a proton from the intermembrane space to the matrix at 37°C?

c) Is this pH gradient alone sufficient enough to drive ATP synthesis based on Table 14-4?

d) If not and this gradient represents 1 mol of protons, how many moles of protons are needed to synthesize 1 ATP?

Tina responded:

Please accept my answer,rate it and ask for any further clarification if needed. I've attached the solution herewith . Thanks for using InstaEdu !

  • David.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

Write the total ionic and net ionic equations for the following reactions. Include the states for each species. A) Na2S(aq) + ZnCl2(aq) --> B) Mg(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) -->

Tina responded:

Please accept my answer,rate it and ask for any further clarification if needed. I've attached another copy of the solution herewith for more clarity on the signs. Thanks for using InstaEdu !

Formula equation :

Na2S(aq) + ZnCl2(aq) → ZnS(s) + 2 NaCl(s)

Total ionic:

Zn2+(aq) + 2 Cl-(aq) + 2 Na+(aq) + S2-(aq) -----> 2 Cl-(aq) + 2 Na+(aq) + ZnS(s).

Net ionic:

Zn2+(aq) + S2-(aq) ----> ZnS(s)

Formula equation :

Mg(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) ----> Mg(OH)2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)

Total ionic:

Mg 2+(aq) + 2NO3 -(aq) + 2Na+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) → Mg(OH)2(s) + 2Na+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq)

Net ionic :

Mg+2 (aq) + 2 OH - (aq) ---> Mg(OH)2 (s)

  • Jacob.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

adsasd

  • Formal-Lab-Report-Guidelines.pdf This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

Answer attached herewith. Thanks!

  • Analytical Chemistry Laboratory I.pdf This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Physiology

Someone asked:

please write 3-4 pages of case studies.

Thanks

Tina responded:

Please accept my answer,rate it and ask for any further clarification / rework if needed. Thanks for using InstaEdu!

  • Iron Deficiency disease in China.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Biochemistry

Someone asked:

The questions I sent you.

Tina responded:

Answer attached herewith. I'll send you the rest in a short while. Thanks!

  • Pearl.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Chemistry (College Intro)

Someone asked:

I went ahead and attached the assignment I am currently working on. I'm having trouble understanding the problems asking me to write a balance equation to certain reactions. For example question 7,11 and 13

  • Group Assignment CHEM1307-Group Work 11-Problems.docx This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

Solution attached herewith

  • Lucy_1.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Biochemistry

Someone asked:

5 questions about glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis (See attachment)

  • Biochem- ch16 five questions.docx This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

Attached herewith

  • Biochem.docx This attachment has been locked.

Feedback:

Subject: Nutrition

Someone asked:

I need to write a discussion essay about the benefits and disadvantages of energy drinks. I want some ideas about what points to mention in the essay. I need two benefits and two disadvantages.

Tina responded:

Benefits:

1.Many brands of energy drinks include protein, vitamins and herbs that are believed to help increase your energy level.
2.Some energy drinks can improve memory and improve blood circulation in your brain, eyes and ears.
3. Some energy drinks are sugar free and they can bring some changes to the palate. Not everyone likes water during exercise.

Disadvantages :
High sugar content, high caffeine content, expensive and Harmful if Mixed with Alcohol

References :
1. Baum, M., & Weib, M. (2001). The influence of a taurine containing drink on cardiac parameters before and after exercise measured by echocardiography. Amino Acids, 20, 75-82. Retrieved Oct. 8, 2008.
2.Geib, K., Jester, I., Falke, W., Hamm, M., & Waag, K. (1994). The effect of a taurine-containing drink on performance in 10 endurance-athletes. Amino Acids, 7(1), 45-56. Retrieved Oct. 8, 2008
3. Pediatrics: Health Effects of Energy Drinks on Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults
4. The Medical Journal of Australia: Energy Drinks: Health Risks and Toxicity
5. The Physician and Sportsmedicine: Energy Drinks: A Review of Use and Safety for Athletes
6. The Journal of the American Medical Association: The “High” Risk of Energy Drinks
7. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: Risks of Alcoholic Energy Drinks for Youth
8. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: Safety Issues Associated With Commercially Available Energy Drinks

Subject: AP Chemistry

Someone asked:

chem

Tina responded:

4.

12 CO2(g) + 14 H2O(l) ----> 2 C6H14(l) + 19 O2(g) Ho = 8326 kJ/mol
6 CO2(g) + 7 H2O(l) ----> C6H14(l) + 19/2 O2(g) Ho = 4136 kJ/mol
Use Hess' Law:

ΔH°rxn = Σ ΔH°comb, products minus Σ ΔH°comb, reactants

ΔH°rxn = [ (4136) ] minus [ (6) (-393.5) + (7) (-285.8) ]

ΔH°rxn = -198.6 kJ/mol

  • Evelyn.docx This attachment has been locked.

Subject: Biology (College Advanced)

Someone asked:

Can u help me with my las

Tina responded:

Where is the Question?

Subject: Chemistry

Someone asked:

If the rate of formation of NH3 is 8.0x10-3 mol/s, calculate the rate of consumption of H2 in mol/s.

Tina responded:

From the reaction, N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ----> 2 NH3(g)
So for every 3 moles of H2 you can make 2 moles of NH3
Suppose,
-R:Rate of consumption (mol/s) of H2 gas and R: Rate of production (mol/s) of NH3 gas
-2R(NH3)=3R(H2)
R(H2)= - 2/3 x R(NH3)| =- 2/3( 8x10^-3) mol/s

Subject: Basic Chemistry

Someone asked:

please answer question 4, 5,6 the file is attached if you can explain you can but the answers would be Ideal

  • Chemistry_Unit_Test_Review_2013.pdf This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

I'm working on the rest. Please give me some more time. I'll message you the answer. Thanks!

Mg(OH)2----> MgO + H2O : Single Decomposition Reaction

Cl2 + 2NaBr ---->Br2 +2NaCl : Redox Reaction

H2S+2KOH------>2HOH +K2S

SrCl2 +2Na----> Sr + 2NaCl : Single Replacement

N2 + 3H2 -->2NH3 : Synthesis

2 C4H10 + 13 O2 ---> 8 CO2 + 10 H2O

Subject: Basic Chemistry

Someone asked:

hi could you please do number 3 for me just the answers please you can explain it if you have time but just the simple answer would be ideal

  • Chemistry_Unit_Test_Review_2013.pdf This attachment has been locked.

Tina responded:

manganese (II) sulfide : MnS
hydrogen peroxide : H2O2
aluminum selenide : Al2Se3
magnesium chlorate:Mg(ClO3)2
calcium bicarbonate:Ca(HCO3)2
copper (II) nitride :Cu(NO3)2
diphosphorus tetrasulfide:P2S4
pentane : C5H12
hydrochloric acid: HCl
sulfur hexafluoride: F6S
Al(HCO3)3 : Aluminum Bicarbonate
MgCl2 : Magnesium chloride
(NH4)3PO4 : Ammonium Phosphate
SnBr4 : Tin(IV) bromide

N2S3: Dinitrogen Trisulfide
H2S : Hydrogen sulfide
SBr2 : Sulfur Dibromide
O3- Ozone
N2: Nitrogen gas
Cs3N : Cesium nitrate

Feedback:

Subject: Micropaleontology

InstaEDU asked:

What is Micropaleontology?

Tina responded:

It is the branch of palaeontology that studies fossils between 1-4 millimeters and which requires the use of light or electron microscopy.

You have blocked Tina. To unblock them Click Here

Send Tina a Message

TIP: Want to set up a lesson? Include a description of what you're working on and when you'd like to meet.

          By sending a message, you agree to our
          Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.
          • Likelihood of Reply: 70%
          • Expected Response Time: 1 hour

          Frequently Asked Questions

          + How do lessons work?

          You and your tutor will meet in an online lesson space. You'll have access to video, audio and text chat and be able to upload documents, draw on a chalkboard and edit papers in real time.

          + Who are InstaEDU's tutors?

          Many InstaEDU tutors are current students or recent graduates of top-tier colleges like Harvard, Stanford and MIT. InstaEDU has thousands of tutors available to work with you on your toughest assignments.

          + How much does tutoring cost?

          New students can try InstaEDU for free, and additional lessons are as little as $24/hour, depending on how frequently you think you'll want to meet with a tutor

          + How do I set up my first lesson?

          Just use the the form above to send a message and schedule your first lesson!